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  • "All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for [c]instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work." (2 Timothy 3:16-17)
    "All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for [c]instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work." (2 Timothy 3:16-17)
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  • Notre Dame Cathedral AFTER fire: The Cross † is STILL standing!!!
    The EVIL forces have NOT prevailed against Him!!!

    "Jesus Christ is the SAME Yesterday, Today, and FOREVER. Do NOT be lead away by various and strange doctrines. (Hebrews 13:8-9) AMEN!!!
    Notre Dame Cathedral AFTER fire: The Cross † is STILL standing!!! The EVIL forces have NOT prevailed against Him!!! "Jesus Christ is the SAME Yesterday, Today, and FOREVER. Do NOT be lead away by various and strange doctrines. (Hebrews 13:8-9) AMEN!!!
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  • Spurgeon

    Evening, April 20

    “Fight the Lord’s battles.”
    —1 Samuel 18:17

    The sacramental host of God’s elect is warring still on earth, Jesus Christ being the Captain of their salvation. He has said, “Lo! I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.” Hark to the shouts of war! Now let the people of God stand fast in their ranks, and let no man’s heart fail him. It is true that just now in England the battle is turned against us, and unless the Lord Jesus shall lift his sword, we know not what may become of the church of God in this land; but let us be of good courage, and play the man. There never was a day when Protestantism seemed to tremble more in the scales than now that a fierce effort is making to restore the Romish antichrist to his ancient seat. We greatly want a bold voice and a strong hand to preach and publish the old gospel for which martyrs bled and confessors died. The Saviour is, by his Spirit, still on earth; let this cheer us. He is ever in the midst of the fight, and therefore the battle is not doubtful. And as the conflict rages, what a sweet satisfaction it is to know that the Lord Jesus, in his office as our great Intercessor, is prevalently pleading for his people! O anxious gazer, look not so much at the battle below, for there thou shalt be enshrouded in smoke, and amazed with garments rolled in blood; but lift thine eyes yonder where the Saviour lives and pleads, for while he intercedes, the cause of God is safe. Let us fight as if it all depended upon us, but let us look up and know that all depends upon him.

    Now, by the lilies of Christian purity, and by the roses of the Saviour’s atonement, by the roes and by the hinds of the field, we charge you who are lovers of Jesus, to do valiantly in the Holy War, for truth and righteousness, for the kingdom and crown jewels of your Master. Onward! “for the battle is not yours but God’s.”

    Spurgeon Evening, April 20 “Fight the Lord’s battles.” —1 Samuel 18:17 The sacramental host of God’s elect is warring still on earth, Jesus Christ being the Captain of their salvation. He has said, “Lo! I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.” Hark to the shouts of war! Now let the people of God stand fast in their ranks, and let no man’s heart fail him. It is true that just now in England the battle is turned against us, and unless the Lord Jesus shall lift his sword, we know not what may become of the church of God in this land; but let us be of good courage, and play the man. There never was a day when Protestantism seemed to tremble more in the scales than now that a fierce effort is making to restore the Romish antichrist to his ancient seat. We greatly want a bold voice and a strong hand to preach and publish the old gospel for which martyrs bled and confessors died. The Saviour is, by his Spirit, still on earth; let this cheer us. He is ever in the midst of the fight, and therefore the battle is not doubtful. And as the conflict rages, what a sweet satisfaction it is to know that the Lord Jesus, in his office as our great Intercessor, is prevalently pleading for his people! O anxious gazer, look not so much at the battle below, for there thou shalt be enshrouded in smoke, and amazed with garments rolled in blood; but lift thine eyes yonder where the Saviour lives and pleads, for while he intercedes, the cause of God is safe. Let us fight as if it all depended upon us, but let us look up and know that all depends upon him. Now, by the lilies of Christian purity, and by the roses of the Saviour’s atonement, by the roes and by the hinds of the field, we charge you who are lovers of Jesus, to do valiantly in the Holy War, for truth and righteousness, for the kingdom and crown jewels of your Master. Onward! “for the battle is not yours but God’s.”
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  • Jesus, Founder and Perfecter of Our Faith

    12 Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, 2 looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God.

    3 Consider him who endured from sinners such hostility against himself, so that you may not grow weary or fainthearted. 4 In your struggle against sin you have not yet resisted to the point of shedding your blood. 5 And have you forgotten the exhortation that addresses you as sons?

    “My son, do not regard lightly the discipline of the Lord,
    nor be weary when reproved by him.
    6  For the Lord disciplines the one he loves,
    and chastises every son whom he receives.”

    7 It is for discipline that you have to endure. God is treating you as sons. For what son is there whom his father does not discipline? 8 If you are left without discipline, in which all have participated, then you are illegitimate children and not sons. 9 Besides this, we have had earthly fathers who disciplined us and we respected them. Shall we not much more be subject to the Father of spirits and live? 10 For they disciplined us for a short time as it seemed best to them, but he disciplines us for our good, that we may share his holiness. 11 For the moment all discipline seems painful rather than pleasant, but later it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it.
    12 Therefore lift your drooping hands and strengthen your weak knees, 13 and make straight paths for your feet, so that what is lame may not be put out of joint but rather be healed. 14 Strive for peace with everyone, and for the holiness without which no one will see the Lord. 15 See to it that no one fails to obtain the grace of God; that no “root of bitterness” springs up and causes trouble, and by it many become defiled; 16 that no one is sexually immoral or unholy like Esau, who sold his birthright for a single meal. 17 For you know that afterward, when he desired to inherit the blessing, he was rejected, for he found no chance to repent, though he sought it with tears.

    The Holy Bible: English Standard Version    Heb 12:1–17
    Jesus, Founder and Perfecter of Our Faith 12 Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, 2 looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God. 3 Consider him who endured from sinners such hostility against himself, so that you may not grow weary or fainthearted. 4 In your struggle against sin you have not yet resisted to the point of shedding your blood. 5 And have you forgotten the exhortation that addresses you as sons? “My son, do not regard lightly the discipline of the Lord, nor be weary when reproved by him. 6  For the Lord disciplines the one he loves, and chastises every son whom he receives.” 7 It is for discipline that you have to endure. God is treating you as sons. For what son is there whom his father does not discipline? 8 If you are left without discipline, in which all have participated, then you are illegitimate children and not sons. 9 Besides this, we have had earthly fathers who disciplined us and we respected them. Shall we not much more be subject to the Father of spirits and live? 10 For they disciplined us for a short time as it seemed best to them, but he disciplines us for our good, that we may share his holiness. 11 For the moment all discipline seems painful rather than pleasant, but later it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it. 12 Therefore lift your drooping hands and strengthen your weak knees, 13 and make straight paths for your feet, so that what is lame may not be put out of joint but rather be healed. 14 Strive for peace with everyone, and for the holiness without which no one will see the Lord. 15 See to it that no one fails to obtain the grace of God; that no “root of bitterness” springs up and causes trouble, and by it many become defiled; 16 that no one is sexually immoral or unholy like Esau, who sold his birthright for a single meal. 17 For you know that afterward, when he desired to inherit the blessing, he was rejected, for he found no chance to repent, though he sought it with tears. The Holy Bible: English Standard Version    Heb 12:1–17
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  • One could do some substituting of place name here without doing any damage to the message of the text as it pertains to you and me. In my case it is America, a land that was blessed by God and had such great promise at the start. 

    The Vineyard of the LORD Destroyed

    5 Let me sing for my beloved
    my love song concerning his vineyard:
    My beloved had a vineyard
    on a very fertile hill.
    2  He dug it and cleared it of stones,
    and planted it with choice vines;
    he built a watchtower in the midst of it,
    and hewed out a wine vat in it;
    and he looked for it to yield grapes,
    but it yielded wild grapes.

    3  And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem
    and men of Judah,
    judge between me and my vineyard.
    4  What more was there to do for my vineyard,
    that I have not done in it?
    When I looked for it to yield grapes,
    why did it yield wild grapes?

    5  And now I will tell you
    what I will do to my vineyard.
    I will remove its hedge,
    and it shall be devoured;
    I will break down its wall,
    and it shall be trampled down.
    6  I will make it a waste;
    it shall not be pruned or hoed,
    and briers and thorns shall grow up;
    I will also command the clouds
    that they rain no rain upon it.

    7  For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts
    is the house of Israel,
    and the men of Judah
    are his pleasant planting;
    and he looked for justice,
    but behold, bloodshed;
    for righteousness,
    but behold, an outcry!

    8  Woe to those who join house to house,
    who add field to field,
    until there is no more room,
    and you are made to dwell alone
    in the midst of the land.
    9  The LORD of hosts has sworn in my hearing:
    “Surely many houses shall be desolate,
    large and beautiful houses, without inhabitant.
    10  For ten acres of vineyard shall yield but one bath,
    and a homer of seed shall yield but an ephah.”

    11  Woe to those who rise early in the morning,
    that they may run after strong drink,
    who tarry late into the evening
    as wine inflames them!
    12  They have lyre and harp,
    tambourine and flute and wine at their feasts,
    but they do not regard the deeds of the LORD,
    or see the work of his hands.

    18  Woe to those who draw iniquity with cords of falsehood,
    who draw sin as with cart ropes,
    19  who say: “Let him be quick,
    let him speed his work
    that we may see it;
    let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw near,
    and let it come, that we may know it!”
    20  Woe to those who call evil good
    and good evil,
    who put darkness for light
    and light for darkness,
    who put bitter for sweet
    and sweet for bitter!
    21  Woe to those who are wise in their own eyes,
    and shrewd in their own sight!
    22  Woe to those who are heroes at drinking wine,
    and valiant men in mixing strong drink,
    23  who acquit the guilty for a bribe,
    and deprive the innocent of his right!

    26  He will raise a signal for nations far away,
    and whistle for them from the ends of the earth;
    and behold, quickly, speedily they come!
    27  None is weary, none stumbles,
    none slumbers or sleeps,
    not a waistband is loose,
    not a sandal strap broken;
    28  their arrows are sharp,
    all their bows bent,
    their horses’ hoofs seem like flint,
    and their wheels like the whirlwind.
    29  Their roaring is like a lion,
    like young lions they roar;
    they growl and seize their prey;
    they carry it off, and none can rescue.
    30  They will growl over it on that day,
    like the growling of the sea.
    And if one looks to the land,
    behold, darkness and distress;
    and the light is darkened by its clouds.


    The Holy Bible: English Standard Version    Is 5:1-12, 18-23, 26–30
    One could do some substituting of place name here without doing any damage to the message of the text as it pertains to you and me. In my case it is America, a land that was blessed by God and had such great promise at the start.  The Vineyard of the LORD Destroyed 5 Let me sing for my beloved my love song concerning his vineyard: My beloved had a vineyard on a very fertile hill. 2  He dug it and cleared it of stones, and planted it with choice vines; he built a watchtower in the midst of it, and hewed out a wine vat in it; and he looked for it to yield grapes, but it yielded wild grapes. 3  And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, judge between me and my vineyard. 4  What more was there to do for my vineyard, that I have not done in it? When I looked for it to yield grapes, why did it yield wild grapes? 5  And now I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard. I will remove its hedge, and it shall be devoured; I will break down its wall, and it shall be trampled down. 6  I will make it a waste; it shall not be pruned or hoed, and briers and thorns shall grow up; I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it. 7  For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah are his pleasant planting; and he looked for justice, but behold, bloodshed; for righteousness, but behold, an outcry! 8  Woe to those who join house to house, who add field to field, until there is no more room, and you are made to dwell alone in the midst of the land. 9  The LORD of hosts has sworn in my hearing: “Surely many houses shall be desolate, large and beautiful houses, without inhabitant. 10  For ten acres of vineyard shall yield but one bath, and a homer of seed shall yield but an ephah.” 11  Woe to those who rise early in the morning, that they may run after strong drink, who tarry late into the evening as wine inflames them! 12  They have lyre and harp, tambourine and flute and wine at their feasts, but they do not regard the deeds of the LORD, or see the work of his hands. 18  Woe to those who draw iniquity with cords of falsehood, who draw sin as with cart ropes, 19  who say: “Let him be quick, let him speed his work that we may see it; let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw near, and let it come, that we may know it!” 20  Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter! 21  Woe to those who are wise in their own eyes, and shrewd in their own sight! 22  Woe to those who are heroes at drinking wine, and valiant men in mixing strong drink, 23  who acquit the guilty for a bribe, and deprive the innocent of his right! 26  He will raise a signal for nations far away, and whistle for them from the ends of the earth; and behold, quickly, speedily they come! 27  None is weary, none stumbles, none slumbers or sleeps, not a waistband is loose, not a sandal strap broken; 28  their arrows are sharp, all their bows bent, their horses’ hoofs seem like flint, and their wheels like the whirlwind. 29  Their roaring is like a lion, like young lions they roar; they growl and seize their prey; they carry it off, and none can rescue. 30  They will growl over it on that day, like the growling of the sea. And if one looks to the land, behold, darkness and distress; and the light is darkened by its clouds. The Holy Bible: English Standard Version    Is 5:1-12, 18-23, 26–30
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  • Create in Me a Clean Heart, O God

    1  Have mercy on me, O God,
    according to your steadfast love;
    according to your abundant mercy
    blot out my transgressions.
    2  Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity,
    and cleanse me from my sin!

    3  For I know my transgressions,
    and my sin is ever before me.
    4  Against you, you only, have I sinned
    and done what is evil in your sight,
    so that you may be justified in your words
    and blameless in your judgment.
    5  Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity,
    and in sin did my mother conceive me.
    6  Behold, you delight in truth in the inward being,
    and you teach me wisdom in the secret heart.

    7  Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean;
    wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.
    8  Let me hear joy and gladness;
    let the bones that you have broken rejoice.
    9  Hide your face from my sins,
    and blot out all my iniquities.
    10  Create in me a clean heart, O God,
    and renew a right spirit within me.
    11  Cast me not away from your presence,
    and take not your Holy Spirit from me.
    12  Restore to me the joy of your salvation,
    and uphold me with a willing spirit.

    13  Then I will teach transgressors your ways,
    and sinners will return to you.
    14  Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God,
    O God of my salvation,
    and my tongue will sing aloud of your righteousness.
    15  O Lord, open my lips,
    and my mouth will declare your praise.
    16  For you will not delight in sacrifice, or I would give it;
    you will not be pleased with a burnt offering.
    17  The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit;
    a broken and contrite heart, O God, you will not despise.

    The Holy Bible: English Standard Version    Ps 51:1–17
    Create in Me a Clean Heart, O God 1  Have mercy on me, O God, according to your steadfast love; according to your abundant mercy blot out my transgressions. 2  Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin! 3  For I know my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me. 4  Against you, you only, have I sinned and done what is evil in your sight, so that you may be justified in your words and blameless in your judgment. 5  Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me. 6  Behold, you delight in truth in the inward being, and you teach me wisdom in the secret heart. 7  Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. 8  Let me hear joy and gladness; let the bones that you have broken rejoice. 9  Hide your face from my sins, and blot out all my iniquities. 10  Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me. 11  Cast me not away from your presence, and take not your Holy Spirit from me. 12  Restore to me the joy of your salvation, and uphold me with a willing spirit. 13  Then I will teach transgressors your ways, and sinners will return to you. 14  Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God, O God of my salvation, and my tongue will sing aloud of your righteousness. 15  O Lord, open my lips, and my mouth will declare your praise. 16  For you will not delight in sacrifice, or I would give it; you will not be pleased with a burnt offering. 17  The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart, O God, you will not despise. The Holy Bible: English Standard Version    Ps 51:1–17
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  • IMMORTALITY
    by Loraine Boettner

    Chapter I. Physical Death

    . . . continued

    11. Prayers for the Dead

     . . .continued

    Prayers for the dead imply that their state has not yet been fixed and that it can be improved at our request. We hold, however, that there is no change of character or of destiny after death, that what the person is at death he remains throughout all eternity. We find an abundance of Scripture teaching to the effect that this world only is the place of opportunity for salvation, and that when this probation or testing period is past only the assignment of rewards and punishments remain. Consequently, we hold that all prayers, baptisms, masses, or other rituals of whatever kind for the dead are superfluous, vain and unscriptural.
    As for the righteous dead, they are in the immediate presence of Christ, in a perfect environment of holiness and beauty and glory where their every need is satisfied. They have no need of any petitions from us. They lack nothing that our prayers can satisfy. Their state is as perfect as it can be until the day when they and we receive our resurrection bodies. To petition God to change the status or condition of His loved ones in glory, or to suggest that He is not doing enough for them, is, to say the least, highly presumptuous, even though it may be well intended.
    As for the wicked dead, their state too is fixed and irrevocable. They have had their opportunity. They have sinned away their day of grace. The uplifting and restraining influence of the Holy Spirit as directed towards them has been withdrawn. It is understandable that remaining relatives and friends should be concerned about them. But the determination of their status after death is the prerogative of God alone. The holiness and justice of God are all-sufficient guarantees that while some by His grace will be rewarded far above their deserts, none will be punished beyond their deserts.
    It is very significant that in Scripture we have not one single instance of prayer for the dead, nor any admonition to that end. In view of the many admonitions for prayer for those in this world, even admonitions to pray for our enemies, the silence of Scripture regarding prayer for the dead would seem to be unexplainable if it availed anything.

    12. Burial or Cremation?

    What is the right method for disposal of the body? In the final analysis, it is no doubt correct to say that the manner of disposal is not a matter of vital importance. We do not believe, for instance, that in the resurrection there will be any difference between those who are buried in the graves of the earth and those whose bodies were destroyed by fire, or devoured by wild beasts, or drowned in the sea, or blown to bits by the explosion of bombs. Certainly, the martyrs who were burned for the faith and whose ashes were scattered by the winds shall arise in the resurrection, and their bodies shall be not one whit less glorious than those of others who received burial. There is no limit to the power of God. He who in the first place made the body from the elements of the earth can bring again the body that has been disintegrated by whatever means. The identical particles are not essential to a resurrection. A sailor buried at sea rises as surely as if he had been expensively embalmed and buried in the family plot.


    Boettner, L. (1956). Immortality (p. 50). Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company.
    IMMORTALITY by Loraine Boettner Chapter I. Physical Death . . . continued 11. Prayers for the Dead  . . .continued Prayers for the dead imply that their state has not yet been fixed and that it can be improved at our request. We hold, however, that there is no change of character or of destiny after death, that what the person is at death he remains throughout all eternity. We find an abundance of Scripture teaching to the effect that this world only is the place of opportunity for salvation, and that when this probation or testing period is past only the assignment of rewards and punishments remain. Consequently, we hold that all prayers, baptisms, masses, or other rituals of whatever kind for the dead are superfluous, vain and unscriptural. As for the righteous dead, they are in the immediate presence of Christ, in a perfect environment of holiness and beauty and glory where their every need is satisfied. They have no need of any petitions from us. They lack nothing that our prayers can satisfy. Their state is as perfect as it can be until the day when they and we receive our resurrection bodies. To petition God to change the status or condition of His loved ones in glory, or to suggest that He is not doing enough for them, is, to say the least, highly presumptuous, even though it may be well intended. As for the wicked dead, their state too is fixed and irrevocable. They have had their opportunity. They have sinned away their day of grace. The uplifting and restraining influence of the Holy Spirit as directed towards them has been withdrawn. It is understandable that remaining relatives and friends should be concerned about them. But the determination of their status after death is the prerogative of God alone. The holiness and justice of God are all-sufficient guarantees that while some by His grace will be rewarded far above their deserts, none will be punished beyond their deserts. It is very significant that in Scripture we have not one single instance of prayer for the dead, nor any admonition to that end. In view of the many admonitions for prayer for those in this world, even admonitions to pray for our enemies, the silence of Scripture regarding prayer for the dead would seem to be unexplainable if it availed anything. 12. Burial or Cremation? What is the right method for disposal of the body? In the final analysis, it is no doubt correct to say that the manner of disposal is not a matter of vital importance. We do not believe, for instance, that in the resurrection there will be any difference between those who are buried in the graves of the earth and those whose bodies were destroyed by fire, or devoured by wild beasts, or drowned in the sea, or blown to bits by the explosion of bombs. Certainly, the martyrs who were burned for the faith and whose ashes were scattered by the winds shall arise in the resurrection, and their bodies shall be not one whit less glorious than those of others who received burial. There is no limit to the power of God. He who in the first place made the body from the elements of the earth can bring again the body that has been disintegrated by whatever means. The identical particles are not essential to a resurrection. A sailor buried at sea rises as surely as if he had been expensively embalmed and buried in the family plot. Boettner, L. (1956). Immortality (p. 50). Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company.
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  • Read the Bible in One Year

    Today's reading in the M'Cheyne Bible Reading Plan

    Lev 24, Ps 31, Eccl 7, 2 Tim 3
    Read the Bible in One Year Today's reading in the M'Cheyne Bible Reading Plan Lev 24, Ps 31, Eccl 7, 2 Tim 3
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  • Institutes of the Christian Religion

    CHAPTER XVII

    HOW WE MAY APPLY THIS DOCTRINE TO OUR GREATEST BENEFIT

    (Meditating on the ways of God in providence: the happiness of recognizing acts of providence, 6–11)

     . . .continue

    10. Without certainty about God’s providence life would be unbearable

    Hence appears the immeasurable felicity of the godly mind.14 Innumerable are the evils that beset human life; innumerable, too, the deaths that threaten it. We need not go beyond ourselves: since our body is the receptacle of a thousand diseases—in fact holds within itself and fosters the causes of diseases—a man cannot go about unburdened by many forms of his own destruction, and without drawing out a life enveloped, as it were, with death. For what else would you call it, when he neither freezes nor sweats without danger? Now, wherever you turn, all things around you not only are hardly to be trusted but almost openly menace, and seem to threaten immediate death. Embark upon a ship, you are one step away from death. Mount a horse, if one foot slips, your life is imperiled. Go through the city streets, you are subject to as many dangers as there are tiles on the roofs. If there is a weapon in your hand or a friend’s, harm awaits. All the fierce animals you see are armed for your destruction. But if you try to shut yourself up in a walled garden, seemingly delightful, there a serpent sometimes lies hidden. Your house, continually in danger of fire, threatens in the daytime to impoverish you, at night even to collapse upon you. Your field, since it is exposed to hail, frost, drought, and other calamities, threatens you with barrenness, and hence, famine. I pass over poisonings, ambushes, robberies, open violence, which in part besiege us at home, in part dog us abroad. Amid these tribulations must not man be most miserable, since, but half alive in life, he weakly draws his anxious and languid breath, as if he had a sword perpetually hanging over his neck?
    You will say: these events rarely happen, or at least not all the time, nor to all men, and never all at once. I agree; but since we are warned by the examples of others that these can also happen to ourselves, and that our life ought not to be excepted any more than theirs, we cannot but be frightened and terrified as if such events were about to happen to us. What, therefore, more calamitous can you imagine than such trepidation? Besides that, if we say that God has exposed man, the noblest of creatures, to all sorts of blind and heedless blows of fortune, we are not guiltless of reproaching God. But here I propose to speak only of that misery which man will feel if he is brought under the sway of fortune.


    Calvin, J. (2011). Institutes of the Christian Religion & 2. (J. T. McNeill, Ed., F. L. Battles, Trans.) (Vol. 1, p. 223). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
    Institutes of the Christian Religion CHAPTER XVII HOW WE MAY APPLY THIS DOCTRINE TO OUR GREATEST BENEFIT (Meditating on the ways of God in providence: the happiness of recognizing acts of providence, 6–11)  . . .continue 10. Without certainty about God’s providence life would be unbearable Hence appears the immeasurable felicity of the godly mind.14 Innumerable are the evils that beset human life; innumerable, too, the deaths that threaten it. We need not go beyond ourselves: since our body is the receptacle of a thousand diseases—in fact holds within itself and fosters the causes of diseases—a man cannot go about unburdened by many forms of his own destruction, and without drawing out a life enveloped, as it were, with death. For what else would you call it, when he neither freezes nor sweats without danger? Now, wherever you turn, all things around you not only are hardly to be trusted but almost openly menace, and seem to threaten immediate death. Embark upon a ship, you are one step away from death. Mount a horse, if one foot slips, your life is imperiled. Go through the city streets, you are subject to as many dangers as there are tiles on the roofs. If there is a weapon in your hand or a friend’s, harm awaits. All the fierce animals you see are armed for your destruction. But if you try to shut yourself up in a walled garden, seemingly delightful, there a serpent sometimes lies hidden. Your house, continually in danger of fire, threatens in the daytime to impoverish you, at night even to collapse upon you. Your field, since it is exposed to hail, frost, drought, and other calamities, threatens you with barrenness, and hence, famine. I pass over poisonings, ambushes, robberies, open violence, which in part besiege us at home, in part dog us abroad. Amid these tribulations must not man be most miserable, since, but half alive in life, he weakly draws his anxious and languid breath, as if he had a sword perpetually hanging over his neck? You will say: these events rarely happen, or at least not all the time, nor to all men, and never all at once. I agree; but since we are warned by the examples of others that these can also happen to ourselves, and that our life ought not to be excepted any more than theirs, we cannot but be frightened and terrified as if such events were about to happen to us. What, therefore, more calamitous can you imagine than such trepidation? Besides that, if we say that God has exposed man, the noblest of creatures, to all sorts of blind and heedless blows of fortune, we are not guiltless of reproaching God. But here I propose to speak only of that misery which man will feel if he is brought under the sway of fortune. Calvin, J. (2011). Institutes of the Christian Religion & 2. (J. T. McNeill, Ed., F. L. Battles, Trans.) (Vol. 1, p. 223). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
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