Needleless injection is the use of a high-pressure jet principle without the aid of a needle during drug injection, so that liquid or powdered drugs enter the body tissue by spraying. The jet produced by needleless injection is extremely high, ranging from 150 to 300 m / s. The depth of penetration of the body is limited, and the stimulation of nerve endings is slight, so there is no obvious tingling sensation when using a needle syringe. The drug solution is distributed under the skin, the onset time is faster, and the drug absorption rate is higher.
Therefore, needle-free injection technology has gradually developed in recent years. Needleless injection has been used in dermatology for local anesthesia, hyperhidrosis, pathological scars, condyloma acuminatum, psoriasis and immunotherapy. The application of needleless injection in the field of skin injection and beauty in the future is worthy of research and promotion.
There are 2 types according to the dosage form administered:
The liquid type is to eject the liquid medicine from the injection hole to form an injection liquid, which penetrates into the subcutaneous or muscle layer to exert the medicine effect, and adopts two methods of mechanical power injection and high-pressure gas power injection.
The volume of mechanical power injection is generally 0.01-1ml. Choose a solvent with low viscosity coefficient, strong solubility, strong activity and good storage stability, such as sterile water for injection.
The difference between high-pressure gas powered injection and mechanical injection is that the injection volume should not exceed 1.5 ml, such as interferon, antibiotics, influenza vaccine, low molecular weight heparin, hepatitis B vaccine, insulin, morphine, lidocaine, erythropoietin and growth hormone And other drugs.
The powder type is a gas jet that accelerates the powdered drug to a certain speed and penetrates the outer skin barrier to be delivered to the subcutaneous, intradermal, mucosal, muscle, and even cells.
It can be divided into a spring compression powder needle-free injection drug delivery system and a high-pressure gas jet powder needle-free injection drug delivery system. The applicable drugs are mainly high-activity and low-dose drugs, such as protein-peptide drugs, gene drugs, chemical drugs and Gene vaccine.
Problems and limitations of needleless injection: small dose:
The volume of conventional needleless injection is 0.1-1.0 ml, and 1.5 ml is the upper limit of needleless injection. The dosage of needle-free powder injection should be controlled within 6 mg. As far as the current technical level is concerned, needleless injection is only suitable for drugs with high solubility and small dosage.
Power system defects:
At present, most of the needleless syringe products on the market use spring or high-pressure gas as the power source. The working stability of spring power is poor, which can easily lead to differences in the dosage of administration, which affects the safety and effectiveness of clinical treatment; and high-pressure gas power is easy to produce Great blasting noise.
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