The steam engine is one of the most important inventions that helped to accelerate the process of industrialization. This engine performs mechanical work by steam, heated to such an extent that it becomes a working fluid.
In 1781, designer James Watt managed to patent a steam engine, which was capable of producing a continuous rotary motion. This type of engine was more powerful than the ordinary one and could perform a wide range of manufacturing functions. The motors of steam engine with the continuous rotary motion could work anywhere where wood fuel and water was available. Therefore, the new design that James Watt created was very innovative. Basing on these innovations, Mathew Boulton together with James Watt designed a new engine called the Watt Steam engine. This device uses a separate condenser for manufacturing functions and uses low pressure to achieve its objectives. This paper provides an analysis of the Watt steam engine. The reason for choosing the Watt engine as the object of the research paper is the effectiveness it has achieved in improving production during the industrial revolution age. This paper maintains that the Watt steam engine was an efficient tool of industrialization that helped in promoting the process of industrialization.
One of the most distinguishing features of the Watt Steam engine is the separate condenser that the engine has. Creating this engine, James Watt had the intention to improve the Newcomen engine. The Newcomen engine required modifications, because it was inefficient in conducting manufacturing processes. In the meantime, the world was witnessing the age of industrial revolution. Machines played an important role in the development of this age. James Watt took the advantage of the need of mechanization and invented the engine that helped to improve the manner how manufacturers were producing their goods. To improve the functionality of the Newcomen engine, James Watt equipped it with a separate condensation chamber. While designing this chamber, Watt separated the working cylinder from the condenser. This separation of the condenser and the working cylinder has led to the decrease of the heat, emanating from the cylinder.
Due to the decrease of the heat, the Watt steam engine has become more efficient in the manufacturing process of products than the Newcomen engine. This is because there is enough energy in the Watt steam engine to ensure that the machine is powered enough to carry out manufacturing purposes. In addition, the Watts Steam engine has the capability of saving energy; therefore, it is less expensive type of engine because the manufacturers do not need to replace the lost energy. To preserve the energy efficiently, the condenser of the Watt steam engine was subjected to an environment that was below the atmospheric pressure. On the other hand, the cylinder of the Watt steam engine was hot during the entire process of manufacturing. Watt steam engine also had the boiler that was a transition point from the steam to the cylinder. The cylinder was under the piston and it was quite mobile. The piston was pushed to the top of the cylinder, closing the steam inlet valve and controlling the passage of steam to an opened condenser. As a result, the steam condensed into water, leading to a partial vacuum. This has created an external atmospheric pressure that had the power to push the piston down into the cylinder. It is important to note that by separating the condenser from the cylinder, Watt managed to eliminate the loss of heat through the process of condensation. This loss of heat was one of the major inefficiencies of the Newcomen engine. Furthermore, these changes in design managed to make the Watt steam engine more efficient than the Newcomen engine, because of its capability to reduce the volume of coal consumed while carrying out the same volume of work as that of the Newcomen.
The invention of the Watt engine had a great impact on the society as it led to an increase in job opportunities and urbanization of the areas where the factories situated. This happened because the employees of these companies decided to settle in these regions, leading to the growth of industrial regions. Furthermore, people used to move from their rural homes in search of jobs, and this accelerated the increase of urban centers. The invention of the Watt steam engine has also influenced politic side of the countries. It is important to mention that countries such as the United Kingdom managed to become wealthier and more influential in the world due to the process of mechanization.
Finally, having an understanding of the steam engine and its functions will give the knowledge of the factors that run the industrial revolution. The Watt steam engine was one of such factors. It was one of the most efficient types of engines developed during the age of industrialization. Its efficiency manifested trough the capability to reduce the amount of energy used in the process of manufacturing. It is important to note that a high cost of energy has led to the increase of the manufacturing costs of a production. Thanks to the invention of James Watt, the manufacturer were able to decrease the costs spent on the energy and diverted the saved resources to the other areas of manufacturing. This, in turn, has led to the producing of the goods of higher quality. The key of the efficiency of Watt steam engine lies in the separation of the condenser and the boiler. This separation of the condenser from the boiler resulted in minimizing the volume of steam coming from the engine. To conclude, it is important to mention that basing on the above mentioned facts, James Watts invention is one of the most efficient designs that had a great impact on the age of industrialization.
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