• #Assembleallthepeople #hearGodsLaws #thecloseoftheseventhyear #Deuteronomy31:10-12 #AudioBook https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NwkCq0CCcHc #TableofContents #TheReadingOfTheLawsofGod #TheReadingoftheTorah #NewTestament #AudioBook2019 #Introduction #GodsLaws #CoreLaws #LawsandRulesAboutGod #SignsandSymbols #HowtoTreatOthers #Howtotreatthepoorandunfortunate #welfarelaws #howtotreatoutsiders #Marriagelaw #Divorcelaw #FamilyLaw #DietaryLaws #TimesandSeasons #BusinessPractices #Employees #Servants #Slaves #Vows #Oaths #Swearing #Covenant #TheCourt #JudicialProcedure #PropertyLaw #PropertyRights #CriminalLaw #PunishmentandRestitution #Punishment #Sentencing #Prophecy #Idolatry #Idolaters #IdolatrousPractices #Agriculture #AnimalBreeding #Clothing #TheFirstBorn #Trumah #Tithes #Offerings #Taxes #TheTemple #theSanctuary #TheChurch #TheCourt #TheKing #Nazarites
    #Assembleallthepeople #hearGodsLaws #thecloseoftheseventhyear #Deuteronomy31:10-12 #AudioBook https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NwkCq0CCcHc #TableofContents #TheReadingOfTheLawsofGod #TheReadingoftheTorah #NewTestament #AudioBook2019 #Introduction #GodsLaws #CoreLaws #LawsandRulesAboutGod #SignsandSymbols #HowtoTreatOthers #Howtotreatthepoorandunfortunate #welfarelaws #howtotreatoutsiders #Marriagelaw #Divorcelaw #FamilyLaw #DietaryLaws #TimesandSeasons #BusinessPractices #Employees #Servants #Slaves #Vows #Oaths #Swearing #Covenant #TheCourt #JudicialProcedure #PropertyLaw #PropertyRights #CriminalLaw #PunishmentandRestitution #Punishment #Sentencing #Prophecy #Idolatry #Idolaters #IdolatrousPractices #Agriculture #AnimalBreeding #Clothing #TheFirstBorn #Trumah #Tithes #Offerings #Taxes #TheTemple #theSanctuary #TheChurch #TheCourt #TheKing #Nazarites
    UPDATED The Reading Of The Laws of God in the Torah and New Testament 2019 Audio Book
    1 Check out http://ChristianitatisCuria.com ! Assemble all the people, including but not limited to: women, children, the stranger, resident alien, and forei...
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  • If you haven’t already started a garden, you might consider one soon. I have been watching the unfolding destruction of agriculture for the past year. Food prices are about to skyrocket. Gardens equal free food.

    https://www.bitchute.com/video/AHJlYkiYYRM/
    If you haven’t already started a garden, you might consider one soon. I have been watching the unfolding destruction of agriculture for the past year. Food prices are about to skyrocket. Gardens equal free food. https://www.bitchute.com/video/AHJlYkiYYRM/
    ADAPT2030
    China Farmland Devastating Floods & USA More Farm Floods Inbound (845)
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  • ARCHAEOLOGY NEWSFLASH 782

    AMAZING PYRAMID INFORMATION

    This fascinating news comes from Al in Canada:

    “I want to share with you a story my late grandfather told me many years ago. I live in Canada now, but originally I come from the Crimea. The Crimea is currently part of the Ukraine, though it belonged to Russia for about 200 years before Ukraine's independence.

    "All my ancestors lived in the Crimea for centuries.

    "The Crimean peninsula is a fascinating place in terms of ancient history and archaeology, and was invaded and inhabited by all sorts of tribes and nations, from Cimmerians, Greeks and Romans to the Genoese, Kumans and Osman Turks.

    “What my grandfather told me has stuck in the back of my mind since I was a small boy. He told the same exact story to my mother, his daughter, when she was little.

    “My grandfather was a taxi driver for at least 30 years and he often took passengers to other towns all over the Crimea, so he saw and heard a lot of interesting stuff in his lifetime.

    “I must mention at this point that the Crimea is a mountainous country, with a range of mountains stretching along the South Coast, that creates a very picturesque backdrop for the world-renowned resort city of Yalta. The highest peak is Mt. Ai-Petri itself (1234 meters).

    MOORING RING ON A MOUNTAIN

    “What my grandfather told me is that somewhere near the peak of Mt. Ai-Petri, there is a very old, huge, rusty mooring ring protruding out of the rock. It is a ring that was used to tie mooring ropes of seafaring ships.

    “He told us that in ancient times the level of the Black Sea was where the mountain peaks are now. You can imagine what a fascinating mystery that was for a child.

    UNDERGROUND SPHINX AND PYRAMIDS

    “Also, a few years ago a number of ancient subterranean pyramids (7 in total) were discovered just outside of my hometown, Sevastopol. The researchers have also found an underground sphinx facing east, and radiation levels are way over normal.”

    PYRAMIDS IN ITALY

    We have also learned of pyramids discovered near the town of Montevecchia (40 kilometers from Milan), in Italy. The discovery was initially made by satellite. These are the first pyramids ever discovered in Italy.

    Their dimensions are quite impressive. The highest pyramid is 150 meters tall. They are stone buildings, as recent excavations have proved. However, they are now completely covered by ground and vegetation, so that they now look like hills.

    The inclination degree of all the three pyramids is 42/43° and their alignment is very similar to that of the Egyptian pyramids. Their age is still undefined although they are surely older than 3,000 years. Nothing was found nearby which may help to date the structures.

    MINER DISCOVERS 29 PYRAMIDS IN JUNGLE

    A friend of mine has spent 2/3 of his life in the forests and jungles around the world. He has degrees in 3 disciplines: forestry, agriculture and pulp & paper (and further wood processing), also C.Sc.

    In 1981, Jerry Krouzel and several friends -inventors - built a unique craft and went mining for 9 months to South America.

    Unbelievable deposits! Their craft was capable of carrying up to 3 tons of weight. After losing the craft with 2 of the friends in it (under strange circumstances), Jerry spent the next 3 months alone in the jungle area.

    He found 29 pyramids, he believes (12 of them have been discovered by satellite since). He did not keep exact track of it after a while, since he was not looking for them. He entered those that he could.

    He noted how tough it was for one guy to survive there even 2 weeks. I can personally relate to his comment that “I still do not know how I made it.”

    Neither he nor his companions encountered hostile tribes but he knows they are there. They know that when white men encroach on their territory it means a big trouble for all of them.

    It is estimated that 150 million natives perished over the past 200 years (according to secret reports by Brazilian and Peruvian governments) – the greatest genocide in "historic" times!

    PYRAMIDS IN CHINA

    The tallest building in the world until this century (and still the most massive structure earth) is an ancient pyramid claimed to be 120 stories high! To see this, we would need to go to China, to the north-western province of Shaanxi (Shensi). It can be found on a long, desolate, flat stretch of land about 40 miles west of the ancient capital Sian-fu, on an old dirt-road caravan trail that crosses from Peking to the Mediterranean.

    About 2,000 feet at the base, it rises (according to one estimate) some 1,200 feet high.

    In Dead Men’s Secrets, I mentioned seven of these pyramids, flat-topped, with three carved giants resting along the outer edges. Further discovery has now revealed that there are more than 20 pyramids in that area.

    The four faces of the pyramids are, like so many ancient structures, aligned to the compass points.

    Traces of color remain on the sides, indicating the colors that were given to each side: east—aqua green; south—red; west—black; north—white; and on the flat tops—traces of yellow.

    A pair of American adventurers who roamed Asia between the two world wars, R.C. Anderson and Frank Shearer, were shown these pyramids.

    (Anderson visited Egypt’s pyramids in 1970 and believed himself to be the only man living to have seen both the Chinese and the Egyptian pyramids.)

    In 1946, a U.S. Army airplane crew rediscovered and photographed these pyramids from the air. Place 26 skyscrapers the size of the Empire State Building and you have the volume of the largest Shensi pyramid.

    A report in Nexus, October-November 1995, referred to two other travellers in 1912, Fred Meyer Schroder and Oscar Maman, who gathered information about these same pyramids, “mountains as high as the sky”.

    The largest would have a volume 20 times as large as the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt.

    “The sides are now partially covered with trees and shrubbage,” they reported. “It almost looks natural hill. We rode around the pyramid, but did not discover any stairways or doors.”

    A US Air Force map of the area, compiled using satellite photographs, shows no less than 16 pyramids. This part of China (anciently called Sian-Fu, but now known as Xian) was the heart of the ancient Chinese empire. In October 1994, Hartwig Hausdorf climbed one of these pyramids and was able to count 20 more pyramids in the immediate vicinity.

    LOCALS KNOW NOTHING ABOUT THEM

    This really flabbergasted him, because no one knew of their existence.

    Says Hausdorf: “China has still a lot of mysteries – even the local population quite often isn’t aware of them. It’s a small miracle I received the go-ahead to enter some ‘no go’ areas. I was, in fact, the only one who was granted such favours.

    "I assume there are two reasons for this. I regularly visit China with a group of tourists. In 1993, I became acquainted with Chen Jianli, an avid researcher of his country’s past.

    "He assured me he would try and open a few doors inside the Chinese Ministry of Tourism. In fact, in March, 1994 I was able to visit some former ‘no go’ areas in the Shaanxi province.

    "I passed around some copies of my German book, Die Weisse Pyramide (The White Pyramid) to the right people. I talked to archaeologists who at first denied any pyramids, but finally recognised they did exist.”

    OFFICIAL DENIAL

    It was that month (March, 1994) that Hausdorf met with Professor Feng Haozhang, Xie Duan Yu and three colleagues. They denied the existence of the pyramids, until Hausdorf showed them three photos of three different pyramids.

    At this, they “caved in”. The following October, they gave Hausdorf permission to enter some other ‘no go’ zones.

    So at last, after many decades of rumor, photographic evidence was now available. Says Hausdorf: “Most scientists denied the existence of pyramids in China. If any scientist still clings to that, show him my photographs.”


    How long will all these things be kept secret? Not much longer... because here it comes...


    HERE... AT LONG LAST!

    Too much for an email. But Dead Men's Secrets?" is finally updated, so you can know. Yes, heaps of brand new facts, and color pictures as well, all in this one mighty e-book, "DEAD MEN'S SECRETS UPDATE".


    DEAD MEN'S SECRETS UPDATE

    And what's in it? Here's just a sample for you to chew over...

    EGYPT

    * Did you hear about the construction workers in Alexandria who broke into a burial vault, which contained bones of people twice our height?

    * That an ancient bullet hole has been found in the skull of an Egyptian mummy?

    * Did you know that the earliest pyramids were not tombs?

    * Are you aware of the surprising secrets down in Egypt’s underground Labyrinth?

    * Ever-burning lamps: An Egyptian papyrus describes the experience of ancient explorers who gained entry to under- ground chambers: "We came to a chamber. When we entered, it became automatically illuminated by light from a tube being the height of one man's hand. And as we came closer it shone brighter."

    INDIA

    * Radioactivity in an ancient nuclear-bombed city in Rajasthan is reportedly still so intense that the area is highly dangerous. What kind of radioactivity is this?

    CHINA

    Did you know that

    * A Chinese fleet was incinerated at sea, then washed high up onto cliff tops?

    * In China, a royal neck ornament created a force field that no metallic object could penetrate. This force field was about a 12 ft. circle around the person, protecting him from any metallic weapon aimed at him.

    * Have you heard about the dangerous mechanical devices in an ancient Chinese tomb? After discovering a secret palace hiddenin China's first emperor massive burial complex, Chinese technicians are nervous. Not because Qin Shi Huang's tomb is the most important archaeological discovery since Tutankhamun, but because they believe his burial place is full of deadly traps that will kill any trespassers. Not to mention deadly quantities of mercury.

    THE AMERICAS

    * Who caused the ancient nuclear destruction in North America?

    * Did you know that North America was surveyed, mapped and carefully described about 2000 BC?

    * And Marco Polo, merchant traveller of Venice, Italy, visited not only China, but came all the way from Europe to Alaska in the 13th century?

    * When an ancient underground complex was unearthed in Southern California, containing artefacts of aluminium and plastic, and pictures of flying craft, advanced surgery, and men walking with dinosaurs... Why did two U.S. Army officers, a major and a captain arrive with 8 army troops and seize the land? Why was the property gutted within days and filled with fresh soil? Why did someone break into the archaeology office overnight and steal all the pictures and artefacts they had collected. And when the property owner challenged the army officers about what they were doing. Why did the major look at him and say, "It would be a shame to have to kill you right here and now"?

    * Did you hear about the more recent adventurers who have explored the Grand Canyon caves that conceal ancient Egyptian remains?

    * Did you know that ancient tunnel systems are still used today by certain Mayans who can ‘pop up’ many miles from their home locations at a lot of places in Central America, and visit with friends and family members without being detected by Government forces out to kill or capture them?

    * What happened to all the Inca gold that the Spanish invaders missed?

    * See amazing terraces "impossibly" inlaid into vertical slopes perched 3,000 feet over the canyon - too steep to be accessible, let alone hurl up those monstrous stones, or even for the workmen to hang on while they fitted them up there!

    * What are the mysterious forces that emanate from the Bermuda Triangle? Is there an ancient power source from a drowned civilization?

    EUROPE, RUSSIA

    * Oh, and what about this? A huge but mysterious tunnel has now been discovered that crosses under Europe and links Scotland to Turkey?

    * Or this? Newly found ruins in Russia contain the largest stone building blocks ever discovered?

    * Have you heard about the ancient "circuit board" mirror found in a mine thousands of feet deep - which, when you keep touching it, shows page after page of a story (now translated), and shows photo-graphs - 15 pictures of what appears to be the same family?

    * Crimea - Mt Ai-Petri: Why is a mooring ring for tying up sea-going vessels fixed into rock near a mountain top?

    * Were you aware that a "natural" Bosnian hill may contain a massive pyramid?

    * And get this! Roman emperor Nero's "revolving banquet room" has been found?

    MIDDLE EAST

    * Still hidden in a cave is a copper scroll which describes a hidden cache of gold and silver buried in more than 60 locations throughout Israel. The monetary value is close to $3 billion, but the historical value is priceless.

    * There are deserted cities in Syria – about a hundred of them – and still in a remarkable state of preservation, that no modern tourists have ever seen.

    * To escape capture, the most priceless artefact on earth was transported underground by means of an ingenious elevator system that lowered it through the floor to a secret tunnel system. Would you like see how this was done?

    AFRICA

    * Did you know that graves have been discovered from the green period, before the Sahara became desert?

    ANTARCTICA

    * Did a TV crew really film a city under the ice, then go missing?

    THE WORLD

    * Discover the many similarities between ancient medical knowledge and practice to medical knowledge and practice today.

    * Were you aware that ancient musical scales were very specific,even to the point of precise mathematical relationships between vibration frequencies of the various notes of a scale? The scales that we use today are the same as those used in China 4,000 years ago. The same musical scales were used by the Greeks and the Indians of western North America. Even today, among the western Canadian Indians of British Columbia there are songs that use a Greek scale like the one on the piano’s white keys going down from the note e.

    * And believe it or not, lathes were used anciently to manufacture domestic utensils. Just see how beautifully perfect they are.

    * How did the ancient races know that weightlessness can be produced by sound?

    * Genetic engineering? Yes, it was carried on 4,400 years ago.

    * And the ancient races also understood and used electronics!

    * And they used robots and automatic doors.

    * Explore with me under the sea to discover drowned ruins.

    * What is the truth about Atlantis?

    * Did you know that the Black Knight satellite, blasted into space thousands of years ago is still orbiting the earth?

    * Have you heard about the 4,000 year old statue found on the moon?

    COAL MINE SECRETS

    * Did you know that ancient men and man-made artefacts have been found buried deep in numerous coal mines?

    * And did you know that advanced technology has been discovered deeply buried in coal mines?

    DINOSAURS

    * Have you seen some of the eyewitness testimonies from modern excavations that have unearthed physical evidence of ancient man co-existing with dinosaurs?

    * Are there still "flying dinosaurs alive today? Yes, there have been repeated sightings of pterodactyls in Mexico. One interesting thing is that they all were daylight sightings. Plans are afoot to capture one, if possible, alive.

    * And have you heard of the modern sightings of giant flying creatures over Australia? Read an eyewitness report.

    ANCIENT BIBLE RECORDS

    * Are there really references to advanced early technology in the Bible?

    * Did you know that an Egyptian record of a 7-year famine parallels the biblical story of Joseph?

    * That coins bearing name of Joseph have been identified in Egyptian hieroglyphs?

    * What about the story of Jonah and the whale? Could a whale really swallow a man and cough him up alive again after three days?


    These are just some of the tantalising facts in your brand new book DEAD MEN'S SECRETS UPDATE.

    And also here is a surprise for you! - If you order this week, here are two FREE Bonuses For You to enjoy...


    Bonus #1
    TUNNEL MYSTERIES:

    * Were you aware of the large systems of ancient tunnels beneath each continent?

    * Did you know that some ancient tunnels run under the sea?

    * Have you heard of the underground cities in Spain, Turkey, U.S.A. and Brazil?

    * Are any of the ancient tunnels or cities inhabited today?

    * Did you get the news about the six tunnel explorers who suddenly dropped dead, all together at the same time?

    * Has anyone told you about the strange noises coming from tunnels under Australia?

    * Would you like to know about the stone doors that have snapped shut behind some tunnel explorers?

    * What causes ancient lights to automatically switch on or off in some tunnels?

    * How old are these tunnels? Who built them?

    * Have you heard of the top secret underground cities being built in U.S.A.? Would you like to know where they are?

    * How fast can modern tunnelling machines cut?

    * Were you aware of the thousands of "tunnel people" living underground beneath the streets of major U.S. cities?

    Bonus #2
    DISCOVERIES: MIRACLES AND ENEMIES
    (ARCHAEOLOGY OF BIBLICAL EVENTS):

    * Has the Hebrew Exodus route really been found by satellite?

    * Why are tourists taken not only to a wrong mountain, but also in the wrong country?

    * Jonah and the whale - true tale of a whale, or just a whale of a tale?

    * Has the escape route from Solomon's Temple to the Ark of the Covenant's secret cave now been found?


    OTHER DISCOVERIES:

    * Did you know that some "elite" religious people have joined atheists and witches to resist the news of five major archaeological discoveries? What biblical finds could unite spiritists, atheists and some "Christians" to side together?

    * Hear about the mountain that moved in response to a prayer!

    * Discover the massive graveyard of an ancient Egyptian army buried in coral.

    * What did an Israeli ex-intelligence agent confess?

    * Did you know that five laboratories tested the blood of a man birthed by a virgin mother, and issued certificates which have been separately and expertly authenticated?

    * Why did a group of would-be murderers ambush their victim, then drop their weapons and let him walk through them?

    * Why have a succession of discovery attackers been dying suddenly?


    MY SPECIAL OFFER TO YOU

    These 3 e-books are VALUED at $81 - but TODAY they are yours for only $37

    FAST Ordering... FAST Delivery:

    No printed version is available at present. But the exciting part is it's available online NOW. NO WAITING. It's fast, efficient and SECURE. It's easy to download. It's printable.

    Just click here to order:
    http://www.beforeus.com/dead-mens-secrets-update.html

    I look forward to getting a letter from you, telling me about your experience when you share these amazing facts with others. Even though I get an enormous amount of mail, please write to me. I’d love to hear of your success with it.

    Very best regards,

    Jonathan Gray

    DO YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS?

    Please email me your questions. I am here to help you with any questions on ancient mysteries. Just email me at info@archaeologyanswers.com

    ---------------------------------------------
    PLEASE TELL YOUR FRIENDS
    ---------------------------------------------

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    If you know someone who would find these facts interesting, Click the URL below now to email it to them, or copy and paste the URL below into your browser.
    http://www.beforeus.com

    You are welcome to put it on your own website exactly as it is, without change, including our email address.

    =====================================================
    International explorer, archaeologist and author Jonathan Gray has traveled the world to gather data on ancient mysteries. He has penetrated some largely unexplored areas, including parts of the Amazon headwaters. The author has also led expeditions to the bottom of the sea and to remote mountain and desert regions of the world. He lectures internationally.
    =====================================================

    #archaeology #newsflash #amazingpyramid #pyramid #information #beforeus #ancient #ancienthistory #ancienttechnology #deadmenssecrets #secretsexposed #explosivesecrets #amazing #astonishing #awesome
    ARCHAEOLOGY NEWSFLASH 782 AMAZING PYRAMID INFORMATION This fascinating news comes from Al in Canada: “I want to share with you a story my late grandfather told me many years ago. I live in Canada now, but originally I come from the Crimea. The Crimea is currently part of the Ukraine, though it belonged to Russia for about 200 years before Ukraine's independence. "All my ancestors lived in the Crimea for centuries. "The Crimean peninsula is a fascinating place in terms of ancient history and archaeology, and was invaded and inhabited by all sorts of tribes and nations, from Cimmerians, Greeks and Romans to the Genoese, Kumans and Osman Turks. “What my grandfather told me has stuck in the back of my mind since I was a small boy. He told the same exact story to my mother, his daughter, when she was little. “My grandfather was a taxi driver for at least 30 years and he often took passengers to other towns all over the Crimea, so he saw and heard a lot of interesting stuff in his lifetime. “I must mention at this point that the Crimea is a mountainous country, with a range of mountains stretching along the South Coast, that creates a very picturesque backdrop for the world-renowned resort city of Yalta. The highest peak is Mt. Ai-Petri itself (1234 meters). MOORING RING ON A MOUNTAIN “What my grandfather told me is that somewhere near the peak of Mt. Ai-Petri, there is a very old, huge, rusty mooring ring protruding out of the rock. It is a ring that was used to tie mooring ropes of seafaring ships. “He told us that in ancient times the level of the Black Sea was where the mountain peaks are now. You can imagine what a fascinating mystery that was for a child. UNDERGROUND SPHINX AND PYRAMIDS “Also, a few years ago a number of ancient subterranean pyramids (7 in total) were discovered just outside of my hometown, Sevastopol. The researchers have also found an underground sphinx facing east, and radiation levels are way over normal.” PYRAMIDS IN ITALY We have also learned of pyramids discovered near the town of Montevecchia (40 kilometers from Milan), in Italy. The discovery was initially made by satellite. These are the first pyramids ever discovered in Italy. Their dimensions are quite impressive. The highest pyramid is 150 meters tall. They are stone buildings, as recent excavations have proved. However, they are now completely covered by ground and vegetation, so that they now look like hills. The inclination degree of all the three pyramids is 42/43° and their alignment is very similar to that of the Egyptian pyramids. Their age is still undefined although they are surely older than 3,000 years. Nothing was found nearby which may help to date the structures. MINER DISCOVERS 29 PYRAMIDS IN JUNGLE A friend of mine has spent 2/3 of his life in the forests and jungles around the world. He has degrees in 3 disciplines: forestry, agriculture and pulp & paper (and further wood processing), also C.Sc. In 1981, Jerry Krouzel and several friends -inventors - built a unique craft and went mining for 9 months to South America. Unbelievable deposits! Their craft was capable of carrying up to 3 tons of weight. After losing the craft with 2 of the friends in it (under strange circumstances), Jerry spent the next 3 months alone in the jungle area. He found 29 pyramids, he believes (12 of them have been discovered by satellite since). He did not keep exact track of it after a while, since he was not looking for them. He entered those that he could. He noted how tough it was for one guy to survive there even 2 weeks. I can personally relate to his comment that “I still do not know how I made it.” Neither he nor his companions encountered hostile tribes but he knows they are there. They know that when white men encroach on their territory it means a big trouble for all of them. It is estimated that 150 million natives perished over the past 200 years (according to secret reports by Brazilian and Peruvian governments) – the greatest genocide in "historic" times! PYRAMIDS IN CHINA The tallest building in the world until this century (and still the most massive structure earth) is an ancient pyramid claimed to be 120 stories high! To see this, we would need to go to China, to the north-western province of Shaanxi (Shensi). It can be found on a long, desolate, flat stretch of land about 40 miles west of the ancient capital Sian-fu, on an old dirt-road caravan trail that crosses from Peking to the Mediterranean. About 2,000 feet at the base, it rises (according to one estimate) some 1,200 feet high. In Dead Men’s Secrets, I mentioned seven of these pyramids, flat-topped, with three carved giants resting along the outer edges. Further discovery has now revealed that there are more than 20 pyramids in that area. The four faces of the pyramids are, like so many ancient structures, aligned to the compass points. Traces of color remain on the sides, indicating the colors that were given to each side: east—aqua green; south—red; west—black; north—white; and on the flat tops—traces of yellow. A pair of American adventurers who roamed Asia between the two world wars, R.C. Anderson and Frank Shearer, were shown these pyramids. (Anderson visited Egypt’s pyramids in 1970 and believed himself to be the only man living to have seen both the Chinese and the Egyptian pyramids.) In 1946, a U.S. Army airplane crew rediscovered and photographed these pyramids from the air. Place 26 skyscrapers the size of the Empire State Building and you have the volume of the largest Shensi pyramid. A report in Nexus, October-November 1995, referred to two other travellers in 1912, Fred Meyer Schroder and Oscar Maman, who gathered information about these same pyramids, “mountains as high as the sky”. The largest would have a volume 20 times as large as the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt. “The sides are now partially covered with trees and shrubbage,” they reported. “It almost looks natural hill. We rode around the pyramid, but did not discover any stairways or doors.” A US Air Force map of the area, compiled using satellite photographs, shows no less than 16 pyramids. This part of China (anciently called Sian-Fu, but now known as Xian) was the heart of the ancient Chinese empire. In October 1994, Hartwig Hausdorf climbed one of these pyramids and was able to count 20 more pyramids in the immediate vicinity. LOCALS KNOW NOTHING ABOUT THEM This really flabbergasted him, because no one knew of their existence. Says Hausdorf: “China has still a lot of mysteries – even the local population quite often isn’t aware of them. It’s a small miracle I received the go-ahead to enter some ‘no go’ areas. I was, in fact, the only one who was granted such favours. "I assume there are two reasons for this. I regularly visit China with a group of tourists. In 1993, I became acquainted with Chen Jianli, an avid researcher of his country’s past. "He assured me he would try and open a few doors inside the Chinese Ministry of Tourism. In fact, in March, 1994 I was able to visit some former ‘no go’ areas in the Shaanxi province. "I passed around some copies of my German book, Die Weisse Pyramide (The White Pyramid) to the right people. I talked to archaeologists who at first denied any pyramids, but finally recognised they did exist.” OFFICIAL DENIAL It was that month (March, 1994) that Hausdorf met with Professor Feng Haozhang, Xie Duan Yu and three colleagues. They denied the existence of the pyramids, until Hausdorf showed them three photos of three different pyramids. At this, they “caved in”. The following October, they gave Hausdorf permission to enter some other ‘no go’ zones. So at last, after many decades of rumor, photographic evidence was now available. Says Hausdorf: “Most scientists denied the existence of pyramids in China. If any scientist still clings to that, show him my photographs.” How long will all these things be kept secret? Not much longer... because here it comes... HERE... AT LONG LAST! Too much for an email. But Dead Men's Secrets?" is finally updated, so you can know. Yes, heaps of brand new facts, and color pictures as well, all in this one mighty e-book, "DEAD MEN'S SECRETS UPDATE". DEAD MEN'S SECRETS UPDATE And what's in it? Here's just a sample for you to chew over... EGYPT * Did you hear about the construction workers in Alexandria who broke into a burial vault, which contained bones of people twice our height? * That an ancient bullet hole has been found in the skull of an Egyptian mummy? * Did you know that the earliest pyramids were not tombs? * Are you aware of the surprising secrets down in Egypt’s underground Labyrinth? * Ever-burning lamps: An Egyptian papyrus describes the experience of ancient explorers who gained entry to under- ground chambers: "We came to a chamber. When we entered, it became automatically illuminated by light from a tube being the height of one man's hand. And as we came closer it shone brighter." INDIA * Radioactivity in an ancient nuclear-bombed city in Rajasthan is reportedly still so intense that the area is highly dangerous. What kind of radioactivity is this? CHINA Did you know that * A Chinese fleet was incinerated at sea, then washed high up onto cliff tops? * In China, a royal neck ornament created a force field that no metallic object could penetrate. This force field was about a 12 ft. circle around the person, protecting him from any metallic weapon aimed at him. * Have you heard about the dangerous mechanical devices in an ancient Chinese tomb? After discovering a secret palace hiddenin China's first emperor massive burial complex, Chinese technicians are nervous. Not because Qin Shi Huang's tomb is the most important archaeological discovery since Tutankhamun, but because they believe his burial place is full of deadly traps that will kill any trespassers. Not to mention deadly quantities of mercury. THE AMERICAS * Who caused the ancient nuclear destruction in North America? * Did you know that North America was surveyed, mapped and carefully described about 2000 BC? * And Marco Polo, merchant traveller of Venice, Italy, visited not only China, but came all the way from Europe to Alaska in the 13th century? * When an ancient underground complex was unearthed in Southern California, containing artefacts of aluminium and plastic, and pictures of flying craft, advanced surgery, and men walking with dinosaurs... Why did two U.S. Army officers, a major and a captain arrive with 8 army troops and seize the land? Why was the property gutted within days and filled with fresh soil? Why did someone break into the archaeology office overnight and steal all the pictures and artefacts they had collected. And when the property owner challenged the army officers about what they were doing. Why did the major look at him and say, "It would be a shame to have to kill you right here and now"? * Did you hear about the more recent adventurers who have explored the Grand Canyon caves that conceal ancient Egyptian remains? * Did you know that ancient tunnel systems are still used today by certain Mayans who can ‘pop up’ many miles from their home locations at a lot of places in Central America, and visit with friends and family members without being detected by Government forces out to kill or capture them? * What happened to all the Inca gold that the Spanish invaders missed? * See amazing terraces "impossibly" inlaid into vertical slopes perched 3,000 feet over the canyon - too steep to be accessible, let alone hurl up those monstrous stones, or even for the workmen to hang on while they fitted them up there! * What are the mysterious forces that emanate from the Bermuda Triangle? Is there an ancient power source from a drowned civilization? EUROPE, RUSSIA * Oh, and what about this? A huge but mysterious tunnel has now been discovered that crosses under Europe and links Scotland to Turkey? * Or this? Newly found ruins in Russia contain the largest stone building blocks ever discovered? * Have you heard about the ancient "circuit board" mirror found in a mine thousands of feet deep - which, when you keep touching it, shows page after page of a story (now translated), and shows photo-graphs - 15 pictures of what appears to be the same family? * Crimea - Mt Ai-Petri: Why is a mooring ring for tying up sea-going vessels fixed into rock near a mountain top? * Were you aware that a "natural" Bosnian hill may contain a massive pyramid? * And get this! Roman emperor Nero's "revolving banquet room" has been found? MIDDLE EAST * Still hidden in a cave is a copper scroll which describes a hidden cache of gold and silver buried in more than 60 locations throughout Israel. The monetary value is close to $3 billion, but the historical value is priceless. * There are deserted cities in Syria – about a hundred of them – and still in a remarkable state of preservation, that no modern tourists have ever seen. * To escape capture, the most priceless artefact on earth was transported underground by means of an ingenious elevator system that lowered it through the floor to a secret tunnel system. Would you like see how this was done? AFRICA * Did you know that graves have been discovered from the green period, before the Sahara became desert? ANTARCTICA * Did a TV crew really film a city under the ice, then go missing? THE WORLD * Discover the many similarities between ancient medical knowledge and practice to medical knowledge and practice today. * Were you aware that ancient musical scales were very specific,even to the point of precise mathematical relationships between vibration frequencies of the various notes of a scale? The scales that we use today are the same as those used in China 4,000 years ago. The same musical scales were used by the Greeks and the Indians of western North America. Even today, among the western Canadian Indians of British Columbia there are songs that use a Greek scale like the one on the piano’s white keys going down from the note e. * And believe it or not, lathes were used anciently to manufacture domestic utensils. Just see how beautifully perfect they are. * How did the ancient races know that weightlessness can be produced by sound? * Genetic engineering? Yes, it was carried on 4,400 years ago. * And the ancient races also understood and used electronics! * And they used robots and automatic doors. * Explore with me under the sea to discover drowned ruins. * What is the truth about Atlantis? * Did you know that the Black Knight satellite, blasted into space thousands of years ago is still orbiting the earth? * Have you heard about the 4,000 year old statue found on the moon? COAL MINE SECRETS * Did you know that ancient men and man-made artefacts have been found buried deep in numerous coal mines? * And did you know that advanced technology has been discovered deeply buried in coal mines? DINOSAURS * Have you seen some of the eyewitness testimonies from modern excavations that have unearthed physical evidence of ancient man co-existing with dinosaurs? * Are there still "flying dinosaurs alive today? Yes, there have been repeated sightings of pterodactyls in Mexico. One interesting thing is that they all were daylight sightings. Plans are afoot to capture one, if possible, alive. * And have you heard of the modern sightings of giant flying creatures over Australia? Read an eyewitness report. ANCIENT BIBLE RECORDS * Are there really references to advanced early technology in the Bible? * Did you know that an Egyptian record of a 7-year famine parallels the biblical story of Joseph? * That coins bearing name of Joseph have been identified in Egyptian hieroglyphs? * What about the story of Jonah and the whale? Could a whale really swallow a man and cough him up alive again after three days? These are just some of the tantalising facts in your brand new book DEAD MEN'S SECRETS UPDATE. And also here is a surprise for you! - If you order this week, here are two FREE Bonuses For You to enjoy... Bonus #1 TUNNEL MYSTERIES: * Were you aware of the large systems of ancient tunnels beneath each continent? * Did you know that some ancient tunnels run under the sea? * Have you heard of the underground cities in Spain, Turkey, U.S.A. and Brazil? * Are any of the ancient tunnels or cities inhabited today? * Did you get the news about the six tunnel explorers who suddenly dropped dead, all together at the same time? * Has anyone told you about the strange noises coming from tunnels under Australia? * Would you like to know about the stone doors that have snapped shut behind some tunnel explorers? * What causes ancient lights to automatically switch on or off in some tunnels? * How old are these tunnels? Who built them? * Have you heard of the top secret underground cities being built in U.S.A.? Would you like to know where they are? * How fast can modern tunnelling machines cut? * Were you aware of the thousands of "tunnel people" living underground beneath the streets of major U.S. cities? Bonus #2 DISCOVERIES: MIRACLES AND ENEMIES (ARCHAEOLOGY OF BIBLICAL EVENTS): * Has the Hebrew Exodus route really been found by satellite? * Why are tourists taken not only to a wrong mountain, but also in the wrong country? * Jonah and the whale - true tale of a whale, or just a whale of a tale? * Has the escape route from Solomon's Temple to the Ark of the Covenant's secret cave now been found? OTHER DISCOVERIES: * Did you know that some "elite" religious people have joined atheists and witches to resist the news of five major archaeological discoveries? What biblical finds could unite spiritists, atheists and some "Christians" to side together? * Hear about the mountain that moved in response to a prayer! * Discover the massive graveyard of an ancient Egyptian army buried in coral. * What did an Israeli ex-intelligence agent confess? * Did you know that five laboratories tested the blood of a man birthed by a virgin mother, and issued certificates which have been separately and expertly authenticated? * Why did a group of would-be murderers ambush their victim, then drop their weapons and let him walk through them? * Why have a succession of discovery attackers been dying suddenly? MY SPECIAL OFFER TO YOU These 3 e-books are VALUED at $81 - but TODAY they are yours for only $37 FAST Ordering... FAST Delivery: No printed version is available at present. But the exciting part is it's available online NOW. NO WAITING. It's fast, efficient and SECURE. It's easy to download. It's printable. Just click here to order: http://www.beforeus.com/dead-mens-secrets-update.html I look forward to getting a letter from you, telling me about your experience when you share these amazing facts with others. Even though I get an enormous amount of mail, please write to me. I’d love to hear of your success with it. Very best regards, Jonathan Gray DO YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS? Please email me your questions. I am here to help you with any questions on ancient mysteries. Just email me at info@archaeologyanswers.com --------------------------------------------- PLEASE TELL YOUR FRIENDS --------------------------------------------- Did you enjoy this information? If you know someone who would find these facts interesting, Click the URL below now to email it to them, or copy and paste the URL below into your browser. http://www.beforeus.com You are welcome to put it on your own website exactly as it is, without change, including our email address. ===================================================== International explorer, archaeologist and author Jonathan Gray has traveled the world to gather data on ancient mysteries. He has penetrated some largely unexplored areas, including parts of the Amazon headwaters. The author has also led expeditions to the bottom of the sea and to remote mountain and desert regions of the world. He lectures internationally. ===================================================== #archaeology #newsflash #amazingpyramid #pyramid #information #beforeus #ancient #ancienthistory #ancienttechnology #deadmenssecrets #secretsexposed #explosivesecrets #amazing #astonishing #awesome
    SECRETS EXPOSED
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  • Black Swan? 31 Million Acres Unplanted. $65 Hay Bales In Ohio.
    https://youtu.be/-nlkUWt7adA
    Ice Age Farmer 6/5/19
    $65 hay bales in Ohio and 31 MILLION unplanted acres of corn in the US are a testament: we are witnessing massive blows to modern agriculture. 80% Raspberry Crop Lost in Serbia to snow/hail. Media stories referencing the cooling are disappearing down the memory hole even as the FDA and EU change their definition of food expiration dates. Start building communities around resilient and regenerative agriculture NOW.
    Black Swan? 31 Million Acres Unplanted. $65 Hay Bales In Ohio. https://youtu.be/-nlkUWt7adA Ice Age Farmer 6/5/19 $65 hay bales in Ohio and 31 MILLION unplanted acres of corn in the US are a testament: we are witnessing massive blows to modern agriculture. 80% Raspberry Crop Lost in Serbia to snow/hail. Media stories referencing the cooling are disappearing down the memory hole even as the FDA and EU change their definition of food expiration dates. Start building communities around resilient and regenerative agriculture NOW.
    Black Swan? 31M ac Unplanted. $65 hay bales in Ohio.
    $65 hay bales in Ohio and 31 MILLION unplanted acres of corn in the US are a testament: we are witnessing massive blows to modern agriculture. 80% Raspberry ...
    YouTube
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  • http://www.i-domehouse.com/case/agriculture_dome.html
    http://www.i-domehouse.com/case/agriculture_dome.html
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  • agriculture markets

    agriculture markets in England The physical environment and natural resources of England are more favourable to agricultural development than those of other parts of the United Kingdom. A greater proportion of the land consists of lowlands with good soils where the climate is conducive to crop growing. The majority of English farms are small, most holdings being less than 250 acres (100 hectares); nonetheless, they are highly mechanised. Wheat, the chief grain crop, is grown in the drier, sunnier counties of eastern and southern England, where new, stronger varieties have become increasingly widespread and avege yields have risen significantly. Barley is grown mainly for livestock feed. The acreage under oats is gradually declining. Corn (maize) and rye are also grown. Principal potato-growing areas are the fenlands of Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and Lincolnshire; the clay soils of Humberside; and the peats of North Yorkshire. The growing of vegetables, fruit, and flowers, known in England as market gardening, is often done in greenhouses and is found within easy trucking distance of large towns, the proximity of a market being of more consequence than climatic Ha Noi, Vietnam

    https://online-stock-exchange.com/_/agriculture_markets/r302859_Who-is-agriculture-markets/Vietnam.html
    agriculture markets agriculture markets in England The physical environment and natural resources of England are more favourable to agricultural development than those of other parts of the United Kingdom. A greater proportion of the land consists of lowlands with good soils where the climate is conducive to crop growing. The majority of English farms are small, most holdings being less than 250 acres (100 hectares); nonetheless, they are highly mechanised. Wheat, the chief grain crop, is grown in the drier, sunnier counties of eastern and southern England, where new, stronger varieties have become increasingly widespread and avege yields have risen significantly. Barley is grown mainly for livestock feed. The acreage under oats is gradually declining. Corn (maize) and rye are also grown. Principal potato-growing areas are the fenlands of Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and Lincolnshire; the clay soils of Humberside; and the peats of North Yorkshire. The growing of vegetables, fruit, and flowers, known in England as market gardening, is often done in greenhouses and is found within easy trucking distance of large towns, the proximity of a market being of more consequence than climatic Ha Noi, Vietnam https://online-stock-exchange.com/_/agriculture_markets/r302859_Who-is-agriculture-markets/Vietnam.html
    Agriculture markets
    Agriculture markets. Digital stock trading of online companies. Invest to earn in the most profitable web shares on the market. Or post your project to our website and investors will fund it with money. We accept internet payments via Paypal, Bitcoin, and Perfect Money.
    ONLINE-STOCK-EXCHANGE.COM
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  • It has just dawned on me that there was an essential and paramount piece missing from https://whitenativism.com. The Middle East! The Jews! It simply does not work without them! There is a real danger that we ‘PARTICULARLY IN THE NORTH’ can become too white, too skinhead, tattooed, white nationalist, supremacist or Nazi ‘LOOKING’ without the Middle East. We in the NORTH do not even mean it. It just happens. We get too engrossed with Anglo-Saxon, Viking and Celtic symbolism and culture etc, that we forget that there was people before us. The Middle East invented agriculture, bronze, iron and writing etc. https://whitetribalism.com is real with the Middle East and the Jews.
    It has just dawned on me that there was an essential and paramount piece missing from https://whitenativism.com. The Middle East! The Jews! It simply does not work without them! There is a real danger that we ‘PARTICULARLY IN THE NORTH’ can become too white, too skinhead, tattooed, white nationalist, supremacist or Nazi ‘LOOKING’ without the Middle East. We in the NORTH do not even mean it. It just happens. We get too engrossed with Anglo-Saxon, Viking and Celtic symbolism and culture etc, that we forget that there was people before us. The Middle East invented agriculture, bronze, iron and writing etc. https://whitetribalism.com is real with the Middle East and the Jews.
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  • Glyphosate Worse than We Could Imagine. “It’s Everywhere”
    Glyphosate residues have been found in tap water, orange juice, children’s urine, breast milk, chips, snacks, beer, wine, cereals, eggs, oatmeal, wheat products, and most conventional foods tested. It’s everywhere, in brief.
    https://www.globalresearch.ca/glyphosate-worse/5674472
    By F. William Engdahl-Global Research 4/27/19

    As new studies continue to point to a direct link between the widely-used glyphosate herbicide and various forms of cancer, the agribusiness lobby fights ferociously to ignore or discredit evidence of human and other damage.

    A second US court jury case just ruled that Monsanto, now a part of the German Bayer AG, must pay $ 81 million in damages to plaintiff Edwin Hardeman who contracted non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cancer.

    The ruling and a line-up of another 11,000 pending cases in US courts going after the effects of glyphosate, have hit Bayer AG hard with the company announcing several thousand layoffs as its stock price plunges.

    In a trial in San Francisco the jury was unanimous in their verdict that Monsanto Roundup weed-killer, based on glyphosate, had been responsible for Hardeman’s cancer. His attorneys stated,

    “It is clear from Monsanto’s actions that it does not care whether Roundup causes cancer, focusing instead on manipulating public opinion and undermining anyone who raises genuine and legitimate concerns about Roundup.”

    It is the second defeat for the lawyers of Monsanto after another jury ruled in 2018 that Glyphosate-based Roundup was responsible for the cancer illness of a California school grounds-keeper who contracted the same form of cancer after daily spraying school grounds with Roundup over years, unprotected.

    There a jury found Monsanto guilty of “malice and oppression” in that company executives, based on internal email discovery, knew that their glyphosate products could cause cancer and suppressed this information from the public.

    A new independent study shows that those with highest exposure to glyphosate have a 41% increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cancer.

    A meta-analysis of six studies containing nearly 65,000 participants looked at links between glyphosate-based herbicides and immune-suppression, endocrine disruption and genetic alterations.

    The authors found “the same key finding: exposure to GBHs (glyphosate-based herbicides) are associated with an increased risk of NHL (Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma).”

    Further, they stated that glyphosate “alters the gut microbiome,” and that that could “impact the immune system, promote chronic inflammation, and contribute to the susceptibility of invading pathogens.”

    Glyphosate also ”may act as an endocrine disrupting chemical because it has been found recently to alter sex hormone production” in both male and female rats.

    In a long-term animal study by French scientists under Gilles Eric Seralini, Michael Antoniou and associates, it was demonstrated that even ultra-low levels of glyphosate herbicides cause non-alcoholic liver disease.

    The levels the rats were exposed to, per kg of body weight, were far lower than what is allowed in our food supply.

    According to the Mayo Clinic, today, after four decades or more pervasive use of glyphosate pesticides, 100 million, or 1 out of 3 Americans now have liver disease.

    These diagnoses are in some as young as 8 years old.

    Glyphosate from Monsanto’s Roundup Decimates Microbes in Soils and the Human Gut – New Science

    But glyphosate is not only having alarming effects on human health. Soil scientists are beginning to realize the residues of glyphosate application are also having a possibly dramatic effect on soil health and nutrition, effects that can take years to restore.

    Killing Soils too

    While most attention is understandably drawn to the human effects of exposure to glyphosate, the most widely used agriculture chemical in the world today, independent scientists are beginning to look at another alarming effect of the agrochemical– its effect on essential soil nutrients.

    In a study of the health of soils in the EU, the online journal Politico.eu found that the effects of spraying of glyphosate on the major crops in European agriculture is having disastrous consequences on soil health in addition to killing weeds.

    Scientists at Austria’s University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna showed that casting activity of earthworms had nearly disappeared from the surface of farmland within three weeks of glyphosate application.

    Casting is the process of the worm pushing fertile soils to the surface as they burrow, essential for healthy soil and plant nutrition.

    A study at Holland’s Wageningen University of topsoil samples from more than 300 soil sites across the EU found that 83% of the soils contained 1 or more pesticide residues.

    Not surprisingly, “Glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) and broad-spectrum fungicides… were the compounds most frequently found in soil samples and at the highest concentrations.”

    The use of various pesticides, above all glyphosate-based ones like Roundup, has exploded over the past four decades across the EU much as across the USA.

    The agribusiness industry claims that this has been the key to the dramatic rise in farm crop productivity.

    However if we look more closely at the data, while average yields of major grains such as rice, wheat and maize have more than doubled since 1960, the use of pesticides like glyphosate-based ones has risen by 15-20-fold.

    Oddly enough, while the EU requires monitoring of many things, monitoring of pesticide residues in soil is not required at the EU level.

    Until recently the effects of heavy use of pesticides such as Roundup have been ignored in scientific research.

    Evidence of soil experts is beginning to reveal clear links between use of pesticides such as glyphosate and dramatic drops in soil fertility and the collapse of microbe systems essential to healthy soil.

    Worms are one of the most essential.

    It’s well-established that earthworms play a vital role in healthy soil nutrients. Soils lacking such are soils that deprive us of the essentials we need for healthy diets, a pandemic problem of soil depletion emerging globally over the past four decades, notably the same time frame that use of pesticides has exploded worldwide.

    Earthworms are beneficial as they enhance soil nutrient cycling and enhance other beneficial soil micro-organisms, and the concentration of large quantities of nutrients easily assimilable by plants.

    The EU puts no limits on how much glyphosate can be put on crops even though it is established that glyphosate can kill specific fungi and bacteria that plants need to suck up nutrients in addition to its effects on earthworms.

    That is a major blind spot.

    Where now?

    What is becoming clearer is the colossal and obviously deliberate official blind eye given to potential dangers of glyphosate-based pesticides by regulatory bodies not only in the EU and the USA, but also in China, which today produces more glyphosate than even Monsanto.

    Since the Monsanto Roundup patent expired, Chinese companies, including Syngenta, Zhejiang Xinan Chemical Industrial Group Company, SinoHarvest, and Anhui Huaxing Chemical Industry Company, have emerged as the world’s major producers of the chemical as well as largest consumers, a not good omen for the future of the legendary Chinese cuisine.

    Glyphosate is the base chemical component for some 750 different brands of pesticides worldwide, in addition to Monsanto-Bayer’s Roundup.

    Glyphosate residues have been found in tap water, orange juice, children’s urine, breast milk, chips, snacks, beer, wine, cereals, eggs, oatmeal, wheat products, and most conventional foods tested.

    It’s everywhere, in brief.

    Despite the overwhelming evidence, however, EU Commission bureaucrats and the USA EPA continue to ignore prudence in not banning the toxic chemical pending thorough independent investigation over longer time.

    If I were cynical, I would almost think this continued official support for glyphosate-based herbicides is about more than mere bureaucratic stupidity or ignorance, even more than simply corruption, though that for sure plays a role.

    The nutritional quality of our food chain is being systematically destroyed and it is about more than corporate agribusiness profit.
    Glyphosate Worse than We Could Imagine. “It’s Everywhere” Glyphosate residues have been found in tap water, orange juice, children’s urine, breast milk, chips, snacks, beer, wine, cereals, eggs, oatmeal, wheat products, and most conventional foods tested. It’s everywhere, in brief. https://www.globalresearch.ca/glyphosate-worse/5674472 By F. William Engdahl-Global Research 4/27/19 As new studies continue to point to a direct link between the widely-used glyphosate herbicide and various forms of cancer, the agribusiness lobby fights ferociously to ignore or discredit evidence of human and other damage. A second US court jury case just ruled that Monsanto, now a part of the German Bayer AG, must pay $ 81 million in damages to plaintiff Edwin Hardeman who contracted non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cancer. The ruling and a line-up of another 11,000 pending cases in US courts going after the effects of glyphosate, have hit Bayer AG hard with the company announcing several thousand layoffs as its stock price plunges. In a trial in San Francisco the jury was unanimous in their verdict that Monsanto Roundup weed-killer, based on glyphosate, had been responsible for Hardeman’s cancer. His attorneys stated, “It is clear from Monsanto’s actions that it does not care whether Roundup causes cancer, focusing instead on manipulating public opinion and undermining anyone who raises genuine and legitimate concerns about Roundup.” It is the second defeat for the lawyers of Monsanto after another jury ruled in 2018 that Glyphosate-based Roundup was responsible for the cancer illness of a California school grounds-keeper who contracted the same form of cancer after daily spraying school grounds with Roundup over years, unprotected. There a jury found Monsanto guilty of “malice and oppression” in that company executives, based on internal email discovery, knew that their glyphosate products could cause cancer and suppressed this information from the public. A new independent study shows that those with highest exposure to glyphosate have a 41% increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cancer. A meta-analysis of six studies containing nearly 65,000 participants looked at links between glyphosate-based herbicides and immune-suppression, endocrine disruption and genetic alterations. The authors found “the same key finding: exposure to GBHs (glyphosate-based herbicides) are associated with an increased risk of NHL (Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma).” Further, they stated that glyphosate “alters the gut microbiome,” and that that could “impact the immune system, promote chronic inflammation, and contribute to the susceptibility of invading pathogens.” Glyphosate also ”may act as an endocrine disrupting chemical because it has been found recently to alter sex hormone production” in both male and female rats. In a long-term animal study by French scientists under Gilles Eric Seralini, Michael Antoniou and associates, it was demonstrated that even ultra-low levels of glyphosate herbicides cause non-alcoholic liver disease. The levels the rats were exposed to, per kg of body weight, were far lower than what is allowed in our food supply. According to the Mayo Clinic, today, after four decades or more pervasive use of glyphosate pesticides, 100 million, or 1 out of 3 Americans now have liver disease. These diagnoses are in some as young as 8 years old. Glyphosate from Monsanto’s Roundup Decimates Microbes in Soils and the Human Gut – New Science But glyphosate is not only having alarming effects on human health. Soil scientists are beginning to realize the residues of glyphosate application are also having a possibly dramatic effect on soil health and nutrition, effects that can take years to restore. Killing Soils too While most attention is understandably drawn to the human effects of exposure to glyphosate, the most widely used agriculture chemical in the world today, independent scientists are beginning to look at another alarming effect of the agrochemical– its effect on essential soil nutrients. In a study of the health of soils in the EU, the online journal Politico.eu found that the effects of spraying of glyphosate on the major crops in European agriculture is having disastrous consequences on soil health in addition to killing weeds. Scientists at Austria’s University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna showed that casting activity of earthworms had nearly disappeared from the surface of farmland within three weeks of glyphosate application. Casting is the process of the worm pushing fertile soils to the surface as they burrow, essential for healthy soil and plant nutrition. A study at Holland’s Wageningen University of topsoil samples from more than 300 soil sites across the EU found that 83% of the soils contained 1 or more pesticide residues. Not surprisingly, “Glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) and broad-spectrum fungicides… were the compounds most frequently found in soil samples and at the highest concentrations.” The use of various pesticides, above all glyphosate-based ones like Roundup, has exploded over the past four decades across the EU much as across the USA. The agribusiness industry claims that this has been the key to the dramatic rise in farm crop productivity. However if we look more closely at the data, while average yields of major grains such as rice, wheat and maize have more than doubled since 1960, the use of pesticides like glyphosate-based ones has risen by 15-20-fold. Oddly enough, while the EU requires monitoring of many things, monitoring of pesticide residues in soil is not required at the EU level. Until recently the effects of heavy use of pesticides such as Roundup have been ignored in scientific research. Evidence of soil experts is beginning to reveal clear links between use of pesticides such as glyphosate and dramatic drops in soil fertility and the collapse of microbe systems essential to healthy soil. Worms are one of the most essential. It’s well-established that earthworms play a vital role in healthy soil nutrients. Soils lacking such are soils that deprive us of the essentials we need for healthy diets, a pandemic problem of soil depletion emerging globally over the past four decades, notably the same time frame that use of pesticides has exploded worldwide. Earthworms are beneficial as they enhance soil nutrient cycling and enhance other beneficial soil micro-organisms, and the concentration of large quantities of nutrients easily assimilable by plants. The EU puts no limits on how much glyphosate can be put on crops even though it is established that glyphosate can kill specific fungi and bacteria that plants need to suck up nutrients in addition to its effects on earthworms. That is a major blind spot. Where now? What is becoming clearer is the colossal and obviously deliberate official blind eye given to potential dangers of glyphosate-based pesticides by regulatory bodies not only in the EU and the USA, but also in China, which today produces more glyphosate than even Monsanto. Since the Monsanto Roundup patent expired, Chinese companies, including Syngenta, Zhejiang Xinan Chemical Industrial Group Company, SinoHarvest, and Anhui Huaxing Chemical Industry Company, have emerged as the world’s major producers of the chemical as well as largest consumers, a not good omen for the future of the legendary Chinese cuisine. Glyphosate is the base chemical component for some 750 different brands of pesticides worldwide, in addition to Monsanto-Bayer’s Roundup. Glyphosate residues have been found in tap water, orange juice, children’s urine, breast milk, chips, snacks, beer, wine, cereals, eggs, oatmeal, wheat products, and most conventional foods tested. It’s everywhere, in brief. Despite the overwhelming evidence, however, EU Commission bureaucrats and the USA EPA continue to ignore prudence in not banning the toxic chemical pending thorough independent investigation over longer time. If I were cynical, I would almost think this continued official support for glyphosate-based herbicides is about more than mere bureaucratic stupidity or ignorance, even more than simply corruption, though that for sure plays a role. The nutritional quality of our food chain is being systematically destroyed and it is about more than corporate agribusiness profit.
    1
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  • Decriminalizing the Drug War? Calculating the Damage from a Century of Drug Prohibition
    https://desultoryheroics.com/2019/05/06/decriminalizing-the-drug-war/
    Posted By Luther Blissett
    By Alfred W. McCoy: TomDispatch 5/6/19

    We live in a time of change, when people are questioning old assumptions and seeking new directions. In the ongoing debate over health care, social justice, and border security, there is, however, one overlooked issue that should be at the top of everyone’s agenda, from Democratic Socialists to libertarian Republicans: America’s longest war.

    No, not the one in Afghanistan. I mean the drug war.

    For more than a century, the U.S. has worked through the U.N. (and its predecessor, the League of Nations) to build a harsh global drug prohibition regime — grounded in draconian laws, enforced by pervasive policing, and punished with mass incarceration.

    For the past half-century, the U.S. has also waged its own “war on drugs” that has complicated its foreign policy, compromised its electoral democracy, and contributed to social inequality. Perhaps the time has finally come to assess the damage that drug war has caused and consider alternatives.

    Even though I first made my mark with a 1972 book that the CIA tried to suppress on the heroin trade in Southeast Asia, it’s taken me most of my life to grasp all the complex ways this country’s drug war, from Afghanistan to Colombia, the Mexican border to inner-city Chicago, has shaped American society.

    Last summer, a French director doing a documentary interviewed me for seven hours about the history of illicit narcotics. As we moved from the seventeenth century to the present and from Asia to America, I found myself trying to answer the same relentless question: What had 50 years of observation actually drilled into me, beyond some random facts, about the character of the illicit traffic in drugs?

    At the broadest level, the past half-century turns out to have taught me that drugs aren’t just drugs, drug dealers aren’t just “pushers,” and drug users aren’t just “junkies” (that is, outcasts of no consequence). Illicit drugs are major global commodities that continue to influence U.S. politics, both national and international.

    And our drug wars create profitable covert netherworlds in which those very drugs flourish and become even more profitable.

    Indeed, the U.N. once estimated that the transnational traffic, which supplied drugs to 4.2% of the world’s adult population, was a $400 billion industry, the equivalent of 8% of global trade.

    In ways that few seem to understand, illicit drugs have had a profound influence on modern America, shaping our international politics, national elections, and domestic social relations.

    Yet a feeling that illicit drugs belong to a marginalized demimonde has made U.S. drug policy the sole property of law enforcement and not health care, education, or urban development.

    During this process of reflection, I’ve returned to three conversations I had back in 1971 when I was a 26-year-old graduate student researching that first book of mine, The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. In the course of an 18-month odyssey around the globe, I met three men, deeply involved in the drug wars, whose words I was then too young to fully absorb.

    The first was Lucien Conein, a “legendary” CIA operative whose covert career ranged from parachuting into North Vietnam in 1945 to train communist guerrillas with Ho Chi Minh to organizing the CIA coup that killed South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963.

    In the course of our interview at his modest home near CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, he laid out just how the Agency’s operatives, like so many Corsican gangsters, practiced the “clandestine arts” of conducting complex operations beyond the bounds of civil society and how such “arts” were, in fact, the heart and soul of both covert operations and the drug trade.

    Second came Colonel Roger Trinquier, whose life in a French drug netherworld extended from commanding paratroopers in the opium-growing highlands of Vietnam during the First Indochina War of the early 1950s to serving as deputy to General Jacques Massu in his campaign of murder and torture in the Battle of Algiers in 1957.

    During an interview in his elegant Paris apartment, Trinquier explained how he helped fund his own paratroop operations through Indochina’s illicit opium traffic. Emerging from that interview, I felt almost overwhelmed by the aura of Nietzschean omnipotence that Trinquier had clearly gained from his many years in this shadowy realm of drugs and death.

    My last mentor on the subject of drugs was Tom Tripodi, a covert operative who had trained Cuban exiles in Florida for the CIA’s 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion and then, in the late 1970s, penetrated mafia networks in Sicily for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.

    In 1971, he appeared at my front door in New Haven, Connecticut, identified himself as a senior agent for the Treasury Department’s Bureau of Narcotics, and insisted that the Bureau was worried about my future book.

    Rather tentatively, I showed him just a few draft pages of my manuscript for The Politics of Heroin and he promptly offered to help me make it as accurate as possible.

    During later visits, I would hand him chapters and he would sit in a rocking chair, shirt sleeves rolled up, revolver in his shoulder holster, scribbling corrections and telling remarkable stories about the drug trade — like the time his Bureau found that French intelligence was protecting the Corsican syndicates smuggling heroin into New York City.

    Far more important, though, through him I grasped how ad hoc alliances between criminal traffickers and the CIA regularly helped both the Agency and the drug trade prosper.

    Looking back, I can now see how those veteran operatives were each describing to me a clandestine political domain, a covert netherworld in which government agents, military men, and drug traders were freed from the shackles of civil society and empowered to form secret armies, overthrow governments, and even, perhaps, kill a foreign president.

    At its core, this netherworld was then and remains today an invisible political realm inhabited by criminal actors and practitioners of Conein’s “clandestine arts.”

    Offering some sense of the scale of this social milieu, in 1997 the United Nations reported that transnational crime syndicates had 3.3 million members worldwide who trafficked in drugs, arms, humans, and endangered species. Meanwhile, during the Cold War, all the major powers — Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States — deployed expanded clandestine services worldwide, making covert operations a central facet of geopolitical power. The end of the Cold War has in no way changed this reality.

    For over a century now, states and empires have used their expanding powers for moral prohibition campaigns that have periodically transformed alcohol, gambling, tobacco, and, above all, drugs into an illicit commerce that generates sufficient cash to sustain covert netherworlds.

    Drugs and U.S. Foreign Policy

    The influence of illicit drugs on U.S. foreign policy was evident between 1979 and 2019 in the abysmal failure of its never-ending wars in Afghanistan. Over a period of 40 years, two U.S. interventions there fostered all the conditions for just such a covert netherworld.

    While mobilizing Islamic fundamentalists to fight the Soviet occupation of that country in the 1980s, the CIA tolerated opium trafficking by its Afghan mujahedeen allies, while arming them for a guerrilla war that would ravage the countryside, destroying conventional agriculture and herding.

    In the decade after superpower intervention ended in 1989, a devastating civil war and then Taliban rule only increased the country’s dependence upon drugs, raising opium production from 250 tons in 1979 to 4,600 tons by 1999.

    This 20-fold increase transformed Afghanistan from a diverse agricultural economy into a country with the world’s first opium monocrop — that is, a land thoroughly dependent on illicit drugs for exports, employment, and taxes. Demonstrating that dependence, in 2000 when the Taliban banned opium in a bid for diplomatic recognition and cut production to just 185 tons, the rural economy imploded and their regime collapsed as the first U.S. bombs fell in October 2001.

    To say the least, the U.S. invasion and occupation of 2001-2002 failed to effectively deal with the drug situation in the country.

    As a start, to capture the Taliban-controlled capital, Kabul, the CIA had mobilized Northern Alliance leaders who had long dominated the drug trade in northeast Afghanistan, as well as Pashtun warlords active as drug smugglers in the southeastern part of the country. In the process, they created a post-war politics ideal for the expansion of opium cultivation.

    Even though output surged in the first three years of the U.S. occupation, Washington remained uninterested, resisting anything that might weaken military operations against the Taliban guerrillas.

    Testifying to this policy’s failure, the U.N.’s Afghanistan Opium Survey 2007 reported that the harvest that year reached a record 8,200 tons, generating 53% of the country’s gross domestic product, while accounting for 93% of the world’s illicit narcotics supply.

    When a single commodity represents over half of a nation’s economy, everyone — officials, rebels, merchants, and traffickers — is directly or indirectly implicated. In 2016, the New York Times reported that both Taliban rebels and provincial officials opposing them were locked in a struggle for control of the lucrative drug traffic in Helmand Province, the source of nearly half the country’s opium.

    A year later, the harvest reached a record 9,000 tons, which, according to the U.S. command, provided 60% of the Taliban’s funding. Desperate to cut that funding, American commanders dispatched F-22 fighters and B-52 bombers to destroy the insurgency’s heroin laboratories in Helmand — doing inconsequential damage to a handful of crude labs and revealing the impotence of even the most powerful weaponry against the social power of the covert drug netherworld.

    With unchecked opium production sustaining Taliban resistance for the past 17 years and capable of doing so for another 17, the only U.S. exit strategy now seems to be restoring those rebels to power in a coalition government — a policy tantamount to conceding defeat in its longest military intervention and least successful drug war.

    High Priests of Prohibition

    For the past half-century, the ever-failing U.S. drug war has found a compliant handmaiden at the U.N., whose dubious role when it comes to drug policy stands in stark contrast to its positive work on issues like climate change and peace-keeping.

    In 1997, the director of U.N. drug control, Dr. Pino Arlacchi, proclaimed a 10-year program to eradicate all illicit opium and coca cultivation from the face of the planet, starting in Afghanistan.

    A decade later, his successor, Antonio Maria Costa, glossing over that failure, announced in the U.N.’s World Drug Report 2007 that “drug control is working and the world drug problem is being contained.”

    While U.N. leaders were making such grandiloquent promises about drug prohibition, the world’s illicit opium production was, in fact, rising 10-fold from just 1,200 tons in 1971, the year the U.S. drug war officially started, to a record 10,500 tons by 2017.

    This gap between triumphal rhetoric and dismal reality cries out for an explanation.

    That 10-fold increase in illicit opium supply is the result of a market dynamic I’ve termed “the stimulus of prohibition.”

    At the most basic level, prohibition is the necessary precondition for the global narcotics trade, creating both local drug lords and transnational syndicates that control this vast commerce.

    Prohibition, of course, guarantees the existence and well-being of such criminal syndicates which, to evade interdiction, constantly shift and build up their smuggling routes, hierarchies, and mechanisms, encouraging a worldwide proliferation of trafficking and consumption, while ensuring that the drug netherworld will only grow.

    In seeking to prohibit addictive drugs, U.S. and U.N. drug warriors act as if mobilizing for forceful repression could actually reduce drug trafficking, thanks to the imagined inelasticity of, or limits on, the global narcotics supply.

    In practice, however, when suppression reduces the opium supply from one area (Burma or Thailand), the global price just rises, spurring traders and growers to sell off stocks, old growers to plant more, and new areas (Colombia) to enter production. In addition, such repression usually only increases consumption.

    If drug seizures, for instance, raise the street price, then addicted consumers will maintain their habit by cutting other expenses (food, rent) or raising their income by dealing drugs to new users and so expanding the trade.

    Instead of reducing the traffic, the drug war has actually helped stimulate that 10-fold increase in global opium production and a parallel surge in U.S. heroin users from just 68,000 in 1970 to 886,000 in 2017.

    By attacking supply and failing to treat demand, the U.N.-U.S. drug war has been pursuing a “solution” to drugs that defies the immutable law of supply and demand.

    As a result, Washington’s drug war has, in the past 50 years, gone from defeat to debacle.

    The Domestic Influence of Illicit Drugs

    That drug war has, however, incredible staying power. It has persisted despite decades of failure because of an underlying partisan logic.

    In 1973, while President Richard Nixon was still fighting his drug war in Turkey and Thailand, New York’s Republican governor, Nelson Rockefeller, enacted the notorious “Rockefeller Drug Laws.” Those included mandatory penalties of 15 years to life for the possession of just four ounces of narcotics.

    As the police swept inner-city streets for low-level offenders, annual prison sentences in New York State for drug crimes surged from only 470 in 1970 to a peak of 8,500 in 1999, with African-Americans representing 90% of those incarcerated.

    By then, New York’s state prisons held a previously unimaginable 73,000 people. During the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan, a conservative Republican, dusted off Rockefeller’s anti-drug campaign for intensified domestic enforcement, calling for a “national crusade” against drugs and winning draconian federal penalties for personal drug use and small-scale dealing.

    For the previous 50 years, the U.S. prison population had remained remarkably stable at just 110 prisoners per 100,000 people.

    The new drug war, however, doubled those prisoners from 370,000 in 1981 to 713,000 in 1989.

    Driven by Reagan-era drug laws and parallel state legislation, prison inmates soared to 2.3 million by 2008, raising the country’s incarceration rate to an extraordinary 751 prisoners per 100,000 population.

    And 51% of those in federal penitentiaries were there for drug offenses.

    Such mass incarceration has led as well to significant disenfranchisement, starting a trend that would, by 2012, deny the vote to nearly six million people, including 8% of all African-American voting-age adults, a liberal constituency that had gone overwhelmingly Democratic for more than half a century.

    In addition, this carceral regime concentrated its prison populations, including guards and other prison workers, in conservative rural districts of the country, creating something akin to latter-day “rotten boroughs” for the Republican Party.

    Take, for example, New York’s 21st Congressional District, which covers the Adirondacks and the state’s heavily forested northern panhandle.

    It’s home to 14 state prisons, including some 16,000 inmates, 5,000 employees, and their 8,000 family members — making them collectively the district’s largest employer and a defining political presence.

    Add in the 13,000 or so troops in nearby Fort Drum and you have a reliably conservative bloc of 26,000 voters (and 16,000 non-voters), or the largest political force in a district where only 240,000 residents actually vote.

    Not surprisingly, the incumbent Republican congresswoman survived the 2018 blue wave to win handily with 56% of the vote. (So never say that the drug war had no effect.)

    So successful were Reagan Republicans in framing this partisan drug policy as a moral imperative that two of his liberal Democratic successors, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, avoided any serious reform of it. Instead of systemic change, Obama offered clemency to about 1,700 convicts, an insignificant handful among the hundreds of thousands still locked up for non-violent drug offenses.

    While partisan paralysis at the federal level has blocked change, the separate states, forced to bear the rising costs of incarceration, have slowly begun reducing prison populations.

    In a November 2018 ballot measure, for instance, Florida — where the 2000 presidential election was decided by just 537 ballots — voted to restore electoral rights to the state’s 1.4 million felons, including 400,000 African-Americans.

    No sooner did that plebiscite pass, however, than Florida’s Republican legislators desperately tried to claw back that defeat by requiring that the same felons pay fines and court costs before returning to the electoral rolls.

    Not only does the drug war influence U.S. politics in all sorts of negative ways but it has reshaped American society — and not for the better, either.

    The surprising role of illicit drug distribution in ordering life inside some of the country’s major cities has been illuminated in a careful study by a University of Chicago researcher who gained access to the financial records of a drug gang inside Chicago’s impoverished Southside housing projects.

    He found that, in 2005, the Black Gangster Disciple Nation, known as GD, had about 120 bosses who employed 5,300 young men, largely as street dealers, and had another 20,000 members aspiring to those very jobs.

    While the boss of each of the gang’s hundred crews earned about $100,000 annually, his three officers made just $7.00 an hour, his 50 street dealers only $3.30 an hour, and their hundreds of other members served as unpaid apprentices, vying for entry-level slots when street dealers were killed, a fate which one in four regularly suffered.

    So what does all this mean? In an impoverished inner city with very limited job opportunities, this drug gang provided high-mortality employment on a par with the minimum wage (then $5.15 a hour) that their peers in more affluent neighborhoods earned from much safer work at McDonald’s.

    Moreover, with some 25,000 members in Southside Chicago, GD was providing social order for young men in the volatile 16-to-30 age cohort — minimizing random violence, reducing petty crime, and helping Chicago maintain its gloss as a world-class business center.

    Until there is sufficient education and employment in the nation’s cities, the illicit drug market will continue to fill the void with work that carries a high cost in violence, addiction, imprisonment, and more generally blighted lives.

    The End of Drug Prohibition

    As the global prohibition effort enters its second century, we are witnessing two countervailing trends.

    The very idea of a prohibition regime has reached a crescendo of dead-end violence not just in Afghanistan but recently in Southeast Asia, demonstrating the failure of the drug war’s repression strategy.

    In 2003, Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra launched a campaign against methamphetamine abuse that prompted his police to carry out 2,275 extrajudicial killings in just three months.

    Carrying that coercive logic to its ultimate conclusion, on his first day as Philippine president in 2016, Rodrigo Duterte ordered an attack on drug trafficking that has since yielded 1.3 million surrenders by dealers and users, 86,000 arrests, and some 20,000 bodies dumped on city streets across the country. Yet drug use remains deeply rooted in the slums of both Bangkok and Manila.

    On the other side of history’s ledger, the harm-reduction movement led by medical practitioners and community activists worldwide is slowly working to unravel the global prohibition regime.

    With a 1996 ballot measure, California voters, for instance, started a trend by legalizing medical marijuana sales.

    By 2018, Oklahoma had become the 30th state to legalize medical cannabis. Following initiatives by Colorado and Washington in 2012, eight more states to date have decriminalized the recreational use of cannabis, long the most widespread of all illicit drugs.

    Hit by a surge of heroin abuse during the 1980s, Portugal’s government first reacted with repression that, as everywhere else on the planet, did little to stanch rising drug abuse, crime, and infection.

    Gradually, a network of medical professionals across the country adopted harm-reduction measures that would provide a striking record of proven success.

    After two decades of this ad hoc trial, in 2001 Portugal decriminalized the possession of all illegal drugs, replacing incarceration with counseling and producing a sustained drop in HIV and hepatitis infections.

    Projecting this experience into the future, it seems likely that harm-reduction measures will be adopted progressively at local and national levels around the globe, while various endless and unsuccessful wars on drugs are curtailed or abandoned.

    Perhaps someday a caucus of Republican legislators in some oak-paneled Washington conference room and a choir of U.N. bureaucrats in their glass-towered Vienna headquarters will remain the only apostles preaching the discredited gospel of drug prohibition.
    Decriminalizing the Drug War? Calculating the Damage from a Century of Drug Prohibition https://desultoryheroics.com/2019/05/06/decriminalizing-the-drug-war/ Posted By Luther Blissett By Alfred W. McCoy: TomDispatch 5/6/19 We live in a time of change, when people are questioning old assumptions and seeking new directions. In the ongoing debate over health care, social justice, and border security, there is, however, one overlooked issue that should be at the top of everyone’s agenda, from Democratic Socialists to libertarian Republicans: America’s longest war. No, not the one in Afghanistan. I mean the drug war. For more than a century, the U.S. has worked through the U.N. (and its predecessor, the League of Nations) to build a harsh global drug prohibition regime — grounded in draconian laws, enforced by pervasive policing, and punished with mass incarceration. For the past half-century, the U.S. has also waged its own “war on drugs” that has complicated its foreign policy, compromised its electoral democracy, and contributed to social inequality. Perhaps the time has finally come to assess the damage that drug war has caused and consider alternatives. Even though I first made my mark with a 1972 book that the CIA tried to suppress on the heroin trade in Southeast Asia, it’s taken me most of my life to grasp all the complex ways this country’s drug war, from Afghanistan to Colombia, the Mexican border to inner-city Chicago, has shaped American society. Last summer, a French director doing a documentary interviewed me for seven hours about the history of illicit narcotics. As we moved from the seventeenth century to the present and from Asia to America, I found myself trying to answer the same relentless question: What had 50 years of observation actually drilled into me, beyond some random facts, about the character of the illicit traffic in drugs? At the broadest level, the past half-century turns out to have taught me that drugs aren’t just drugs, drug dealers aren’t just “pushers,” and drug users aren’t just “junkies” (that is, outcasts of no consequence). Illicit drugs are major global commodities that continue to influence U.S. politics, both national and international. And our drug wars create profitable covert netherworlds in which those very drugs flourish and become even more profitable. Indeed, the U.N. once estimated that the transnational traffic, which supplied drugs to 4.2% of the world’s adult population, was a $400 billion industry, the equivalent of 8% of global trade. In ways that few seem to understand, illicit drugs have had a profound influence on modern America, shaping our international politics, national elections, and domestic social relations. Yet a feeling that illicit drugs belong to a marginalized demimonde has made U.S. drug policy the sole property of law enforcement and not health care, education, or urban development. During this process of reflection, I’ve returned to three conversations I had back in 1971 when I was a 26-year-old graduate student researching that first book of mine, The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. In the course of an 18-month odyssey around the globe, I met three men, deeply involved in the drug wars, whose words I was then too young to fully absorb. The first was Lucien Conein, a “legendary” CIA operative whose covert career ranged from parachuting into North Vietnam in 1945 to train communist guerrillas with Ho Chi Minh to organizing the CIA coup that killed South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963. In the course of our interview at his modest home near CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, he laid out just how the Agency’s operatives, like so many Corsican gangsters, practiced the “clandestine arts” of conducting complex operations beyond the bounds of civil society and how such “arts” were, in fact, the heart and soul of both covert operations and the drug trade. Second came Colonel Roger Trinquier, whose life in a French drug netherworld extended from commanding paratroopers in the opium-growing highlands of Vietnam during the First Indochina War of the early 1950s to serving as deputy to General Jacques Massu in his campaign of murder and torture in the Battle of Algiers in 1957. During an interview in his elegant Paris apartment, Trinquier explained how he helped fund his own paratroop operations through Indochina’s illicit opium traffic. Emerging from that interview, I felt almost overwhelmed by the aura of Nietzschean omnipotence that Trinquier had clearly gained from his many years in this shadowy realm of drugs and death. My last mentor on the subject of drugs was Tom Tripodi, a covert operative who had trained Cuban exiles in Florida for the CIA’s 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion and then, in the late 1970s, penetrated mafia networks in Sicily for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. In 1971, he appeared at my front door in New Haven, Connecticut, identified himself as a senior agent for the Treasury Department’s Bureau of Narcotics, and insisted that the Bureau was worried about my future book. Rather tentatively, I showed him just a few draft pages of my manuscript for The Politics of Heroin and he promptly offered to help me make it as accurate as possible. During later visits, I would hand him chapters and he would sit in a rocking chair, shirt sleeves rolled up, revolver in his shoulder holster, scribbling corrections and telling remarkable stories about the drug trade — like the time his Bureau found that French intelligence was protecting the Corsican syndicates smuggling heroin into New York City. Far more important, though, through him I grasped how ad hoc alliances between criminal traffickers and the CIA regularly helped both the Agency and the drug trade prosper. Looking back, I can now see how those veteran operatives were each describing to me a clandestine political domain, a covert netherworld in which government agents, military men, and drug traders were freed from the shackles of civil society and empowered to form secret armies, overthrow governments, and even, perhaps, kill a foreign president. At its core, this netherworld was then and remains today an invisible political realm inhabited by criminal actors and practitioners of Conein’s “clandestine arts.” Offering some sense of the scale of this social milieu, in 1997 the United Nations reported that transnational crime syndicates had 3.3 million members worldwide who trafficked in drugs, arms, humans, and endangered species. Meanwhile, during the Cold War, all the major powers — Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States — deployed expanded clandestine services worldwide, making covert operations a central facet of geopolitical power. The end of the Cold War has in no way changed this reality. For over a century now, states and empires have used their expanding powers for moral prohibition campaigns that have periodically transformed alcohol, gambling, tobacco, and, above all, drugs into an illicit commerce that generates sufficient cash to sustain covert netherworlds. Drugs and U.S. Foreign Policy The influence of illicit drugs on U.S. foreign policy was evident between 1979 and 2019 in the abysmal failure of its never-ending wars in Afghanistan. Over a period of 40 years, two U.S. interventions there fostered all the conditions for just such a covert netherworld. While mobilizing Islamic fundamentalists to fight the Soviet occupation of that country in the 1980s, the CIA tolerated opium trafficking by its Afghan mujahedeen allies, while arming them for a guerrilla war that would ravage the countryside, destroying conventional agriculture and herding. In the decade after superpower intervention ended in 1989, a devastating civil war and then Taliban rule only increased the country’s dependence upon drugs, raising opium production from 250 tons in 1979 to 4,600 tons by 1999. This 20-fold increase transformed Afghanistan from a diverse agricultural economy into a country with the world’s first opium monocrop — that is, a land thoroughly dependent on illicit drugs for exports, employment, and taxes. Demonstrating that dependence, in 2000 when the Taliban banned opium in a bid for diplomatic recognition and cut production to just 185 tons, the rural economy imploded and their regime collapsed as the first U.S. bombs fell in October 2001. To say the least, the U.S. invasion and occupation of 2001-2002 failed to effectively deal with the drug situation in the country. As a start, to capture the Taliban-controlled capital, Kabul, the CIA had mobilized Northern Alliance leaders who had long dominated the drug trade in northeast Afghanistan, as well as Pashtun warlords active as drug smugglers in the southeastern part of the country. In the process, they created a post-war politics ideal for the expansion of opium cultivation. Even though output surged in the first three years of the U.S. occupation, Washington remained uninterested, resisting anything that might weaken military operations against the Taliban guerrillas. Testifying to this policy’s failure, the U.N.’s Afghanistan Opium Survey 2007 reported that the harvest that year reached a record 8,200 tons, generating 53% of the country’s gross domestic product, while accounting for 93% of the world’s illicit narcotics supply. When a single commodity represents over half of a nation’s economy, everyone — officials, rebels, merchants, and traffickers — is directly or indirectly implicated. In 2016, the New York Times reported that both Taliban rebels and provincial officials opposing them were locked in a struggle for control of the lucrative drug traffic in Helmand Province, the source of nearly half the country’s opium. A year later, the harvest reached a record 9,000 tons, which, according to the U.S. command, provided 60% of the Taliban’s funding. Desperate to cut that funding, American commanders dispatched F-22 fighters and B-52 bombers to destroy the insurgency’s heroin laboratories in Helmand — doing inconsequential damage to a handful of crude labs and revealing the impotence of even the most powerful weaponry against the social power of the covert drug netherworld. With unchecked opium production sustaining Taliban resistance for the past 17 years and capable of doing so for another 17, the only U.S. exit strategy now seems to be restoring those rebels to power in a coalition government — a policy tantamount to conceding defeat in its longest military intervention and least successful drug war. High Priests of Prohibition For the past half-century, the ever-failing U.S. drug war has found a compliant handmaiden at the U.N., whose dubious role when it comes to drug policy stands in stark contrast to its positive work on issues like climate change and peace-keeping. In 1997, the director of U.N. drug control, Dr. Pino Arlacchi, proclaimed a 10-year program to eradicate all illicit opium and coca cultivation from the face of the planet, starting in Afghanistan. A decade later, his successor, Antonio Maria Costa, glossing over that failure, announced in the U.N.’s World Drug Report 2007 that “drug control is working and the world drug problem is being contained.” While U.N. leaders were making such grandiloquent promises about drug prohibition, the world’s illicit opium production was, in fact, rising 10-fold from just 1,200 tons in 1971, the year the U.S. drug war officially started, to a record 10,500 tons by 2017. This gap between triumphal rhetoric and dismal reality cries out for an explanation. That 10-fold increase in illicit opium supply is the result of a market dynamic I’ve termed “the stimulus of prohibition.” At the most basic level, prohibition is the necessary precondition for the global narcotics trade, creating both local drug lords and transnational syndicates that control this vast commerce. Prohibition, of course, guarantees the existence and well-being of such criminal syndicates which, to evade interdiction, constantly shift and build up their smuggling routes, hierarchies, and mechanisms, encouraging a worldwide proliferation of trafficking and consumption, while ensuring that the drug netherworld will only grow. In seeking to prohibit addictive drugs, U.S. and U.N. drug warriors act as if mobilizing for forceful repression could actually reduce drug trafficking, thanks to the imagined inelasticity of, or limits on, the global narcotics supply. In practice, however, when suppression reduces the opium supply from one area (Burma or Thailand), the global price just rises, spurring traders and growers to sell off stocks, old growers to plant more, and new areas (Colombia) to enter production. In addition, such repression usually only increases consumption. If drug seizures, for instance, raise the street price, then addicted consumers will maintain their habit by cutting other expenses (food, rent) or raising their income by dealing drugs to new users and so expanding the trade. Instead of reducing the traffic, the drug war has actually helped stimulate that 10-fold increase in global opium production and a parallel surge in U.S. heroin users from just 68,000 in 1970 to 886,000 in 2017. By attacking supply and failing to treat demand, the U.N.-U.S. drug war has been pursuing a “solution” to drugs that defies the immutable law of supply and demand. As a result, Washington’s drug war has, in the past 50 years, gone from defeat to debacle. The Domestic Influence of Illicit Drugs That drug war has, however, incredible staying power. It has persisted despite decades of failure because of an underlying partisan logic. In 1973, while President Richard Nixon was still fighting his drug war in Turkey and Thailand, New York’s Republican governor, Nelson Rockefeller, enacted the notorious “Rockefeller Drug Laws.” Those included mandatory penalties of 15 years to life for the possession of just four ounces of narcotics. As the police swept inner-city streets for low-level offenders, annual prison sentences in New York State for drug crimes surged from only 470 in 1970 to a peak of 8,500 in 1999, with African-Americans representing 90% of those incarcerated. By then, New York’s state prisons held a previously unimaginable 73,000 people. During the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan, a conservative Republican, dusted off Rockefeller’s anti-drug campaign for intensified domestic enforcement, calling for a “national crusade” against drugs and winning draconian federal penalties for personal drug use and small-scale dealing. For the previous 50 years, the U.S. prison population had remained remarkably stable at just 110 prisoners per 100,000 people. The new drug war, however, doubled those prisoners from 370,000 in 1981 to 713,000 in 1989. Driven by Reagan-era drug laws and parallel state legislation, prison inmates soared to 2.3 million by 2008, raising the country’s incarceration rate to an extraordinary 751 prisoners per 100,000 population. And 51% of those in federal penitentiaries were there for drug offenses. Such mass incarceration has led as well to significant disenfranchisement, starting a trend that would, by 2012, deny the vote to nearly six million people, including 8% of all African-American voting-age adults, a liberal constituency that had gone overwhelmingly Democratic for more than half a century. In addition, this carceral regime concentrated its prison populations, including guards and other prison workers, in conservative rural districts of the country, creating something akin to latter-day “rotten boroughs” for the Republican Party. Take, for example, New York’s 21st Congressional District, which covers the Adirondacks and the state’s heavily forested northern panhandle. It’s home to 14 state prisons, including some 16,000 inmates, 5,000 employees, and their 8,000 family members — making them collectively the district’s largest employer and a defining political presence. Add in the 13,000 or so troops in nearby Fort Drum and you have a reliably conservative bloc of 26,000 voters (and 16,000 non-voters), or the largest political force in a district where only 240,000 residents actually vote. Not surprisingly, the incumbent Republican congresswoman survived the 2018 blue wave to win handily with 56% of the vote. (So never say that the drug war had no effect.) So successful were Reagan Republicans in framing this partisan drug policy as a moral imperative that two of his liberal Democratic successors, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, avoided any serious reform of it. Instead of systemic change, Obama offered clemency to about 1,700 convicts, an insignificant handful among the hundreds of thousands still locked up for non-violent drug offenses. While partisan paralysis at the federal level has blocked change, the separate states, forced to bear the rising costs of incarceration, have slowly begun reducing prison populations. In a November 2018 ballot measure, for instance, Florida — where the 2000 presidential election was decided by just 537 ballots — voted to restore electoral rights to the state’s 1.4 million felons, including 400,000 African-Americans. No sooner did that plebiscite pass, however, than Florida’s Republican legislators desperately tried to claw back that defeat by requiring that the same felons pay fines and court costs before returning to the electoral rolls. Not only does the drug war influence U.S. politics in all sorts of negative ways but it has reshaped American society — and not for the better, either. The surprising role of illicit drug distribution in ordering life inside some of the country’s major cities has been illuminated in a careful study by a University of Chicago researcher who gained access to the financial records of a drug gang inside Chicago’s impoverished Southside housing projects. He found that, in 2005, the Black Gangster Disciple Nation, known as GD, had about 120 bosses who employed 5,300 young men, largely as street dealers, and had another 20,000 members aspiring to those very jobs. While the boss of each of the gang’s hundred crews earned about $100,000 annually, his three officers made just $7.00 an hour, his 50 street dealers only $3.30 an hour, and their hundreds of other members served as unpaid apprentices, vying for entry-level slots when street dealers were killed, a fate which one in four regularly suffered. So what does all this mean? In an impoverished inner city with very limited job opportunities, this drug gang provided high-mortality employment on a par with the minimum wage (then $5.15 a hour) that their peers in more affluent neighborhoods earned from much safer work at McDonald’s. Moreover, with some 25,000 members in Southside Chicago, GD was providing social order for young men in the volatile 16-to-30 age cohort — minimizing random violence, reducing petty crime, and helping Chicago maintain its gloss as a world-class business center. Until there is sufficient education and employment in the nation’s cities, the illicit drug market will continue to fill the void with work that carries a high cost in violence, addiction, imprisonment, and more generally blighted lives. The End of Drug Prohibition As the global prohibition effort enters its second century, we are witnessing two countervailing trends. The very idea of a prohibition regime has reached a crescendo of dead-end violence not just in Afghanistan but recently in Southeast Asia, demonstrating the failure of the drug war’s repression strategy. In 2003, Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra launched a campaign against methamphetamine abuse that prompted his police to carry out 2,275 extrajudicial killings in just three months. Carrying that coercive logic to its ultimate conclusion, on his first day as Philippine president in 2016, Rodrigo Duterte ordered an attack on drug trafficking that has since yielded 1.3 million surrenders by dealers and users, 86,000 arrests, and some 20,000 bodies dumped on city streets across the country. Yet drug use remains deeply rooted in the slums of both Bangkok and Manila. On the other side of history’s ledger, the harm-reduction movement led by medical practitioners and community activists worldwide is slowly working to unravel the global prohibition regime. With a 1996 ballot measure, California voters, for instance, started a trend by legalizing medical marijuana sales. By 2018, Oklahoma had become the 30th state to legalize medical cannabis. Following initiatives by Colorado and Washington in 2012, eight more states to date have decriminalized the recreational use of cannabis, long the most widespread of all illicit drugs. Hit by a surge of heroin abuse during the 1980s, Portugal’s government first reacted with repression that, as everywhere else on the planet, did little to stanch rising drug abuse, crime, and infection. Gradually, a network of medical professionals across the country adopted harm-reduction measures that would provide a striking record of proven success. After two decades of this ad hoc trial, in 2001 Portugal decriminalized the possession of all illegal drugs, replacing incarceration with counseling and producing a sustained drop in HIV and hepatitis infections. Projecting this experience into the future, it seems likely that harm-reduction measures will be adopted progressively at local and national levels around the globe, while various endless and unsuccessful wars on drugs are curtailed or abandoned. Perhaps someday a caucus of Republican legislators in some oak-paneled Washington conference room and a choir of U.N. bureaucrats in their glass-towered Vienna headquarters will remain the only apostles preaching the discredited gospel of drug prohibition.
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  • Back in Iowa, Sanders Says Big Ag's Stranglehold a Key Part of 'Major Crisis' Facing Rural America
    https://www.commondreams.org/news/2019/05/04/back-iowa-sanders-says-big-ags-stranglehold-key-part-major-crisis-facing-rural
    Jon Queally, staff writer

    Back on the campaign trail in Iowa over the weekend, 2020 Democratic candidate Sen. Bernie Sanders is set to unveil a major policy vision that will include breaking up powerful agriculture conglomerates as a way to save small farmers and rural communities he says are facing a "major, major crisis."

    While Sanders will deliver a speech at fairgrounds in the town of Osage, he told the Des Moines Register in an interview on Friday that "we have got to make a decision as to whether or not we are comfortable with seeing fewer and fewer large agribusiness industries control commodity after commodity"—a dynamic, he said, he is not "happy about" and one that is undermining rural communities across the country.

    According to the newspaper:

    During his first Iowa trip in early March, [Sanders] targeted "factory farming" and derided the concentration of players from the corn seed market to pork production. Sunday, he plans to expand on those issues and also talk about agriculture's connection to water quality and global climate change.

    Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren, often seen as competing for the same slice of liberal voters as Sanders, released her own agricultural policy in late March. She specifically called for federal regulators to break up Tyson, Dow-DuPont and Bayer-Monsanto — some of the key players in Iowa's ag economy.

    Asked by the newspaper whether the nation could realistically move back to a system of smaller, family farms, Sanders said he didn't "think we're going to go back to the 1880s," but did say "the heart of rural America is agriculture" and that his campaign intends to focus more on the issue of rural issues and farming in 2020 than they did when he first ran in 2016.

    "I come from a rural state," Sanders said. "It's an issue we probably should have talked about more last time. We will do that this time."

    According to the newspaper, Sanders said it is time for the nation to push for major changes to the entire food production system.

    As Bill Neidhardt, spokesperson for the campaign, put it, Sanders believes the "rural way of life needs to be preserved both in his home state of Vermont and across Iowa," and in order to achieve that, the senator's speech—which will reportedly address corporate control over agriculture, fair trade deals, support for new farmers, climate change, clean water, rural education, rural health care and immigration—"will call for major, structural changes to the agricultural economy."
    Back in Iowa, Sanders Says Big Ag's Stranglehold a Key Part of 'Major Crisis' Facing Rural America https://www.commondreams.org/news/2019/05/04/back-iowa-sanders-says-big-ags-stranglehold-key-part-major-crisis-facing-rural Jon Queally, staff writer Back on the campaign trail in Iowa over the weekend, 2020 Democratic candidate Sen. Bernie Sanders is set to unveil a major policy vision that will include breaking up powerful agriculture conglomerates as a way to save small farmers and rural communities he says are facing a "major, major crisis." While Sanders will deliver a speech at fairgrounds in the town of Osage, he told the Des Moines Register in an interview on Friday that "we have got to make a decision as to whether or not we are comfortable with seeing fewer and fewer large agribusiness industries control commodity after commodity"—a dynamic, he said, he is not "happy about" and one that is undermining rural communities across the country. According to the newspaper: During his first Iowa trip in early March, [Sanders] targeted "factory farming" and derided the concentration of players from the corn seed market to pork production. Sunday, he plans to expand on those issues and also talk about agriculture's connection to water quality and global climate change. Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren, often seen as competing for the same slice of liberal voters as Sanders, released her own agricultural policy in late March. She specifically called for federal regulators to break up Tyson, Dow-DuPont and Bayer-Monsanto — some of the key players in Iowa's ag economy. Asked by the newspaper whether the nation could realistically move back to a system of smaller, family farms, Sanders said he didn't "think we're going to go back to the 1880s," but did say "the heart of rural America is agriculture" and that his campaign intends to focus more on the issue of rural issues and farming in 2020 than they did when he first ran in 2016. "I come from a rural state," Sanders said. "It's an issue we probably should have talked about more last time. We will do that this time." According to the newspaper, Sanders said it is time for the nation to push for major changes to the entire food production system. As Bill Neidhardt, spokesperson for the campaign, put it, Sanders believes the "rural way of life needs to be preserved both in his home state of Vermont and across Iowa," and in order to achieve that, the senator's speech—which will reportedly address corporate control over agriculture, fair trade deals, support for new farmers, climate change, clean water, rural education, rural health care and immigration—"will call for major, structural changes to the agricultural economy."
    Back in Iowa, Sanders Says Big Ag's Stranglehold a Key Part of 'Major Crisis' Facing Rural America
    With a major speech on Sunday, 2020 candidate will set forth policy vision to save small farmers and rural communities
    WWW.COMMONDREAMS.ORG
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