• ARCHAEOLOGY NEWSFLASH 796

    HER 30 FOOT FALL ON HER HEAD SAVED HER

    I am responsible if I do not share this very important news with you.

    What is currently happening right now is vitally connected with a very ancient document which it is my job to investigate and report on to you.

    And you will see this clearly as we go on.

    But first, were you aware of reverse events - miracles, if you like - that are occurring constantly around the world?


    THE 30-FOOT FALL ON HER HEAD CURED HER!


    In December 2011, 9 year old Annabel Beam fell 30 feet head-first down into the rotted-out trunk of a cottonwood tree. Several hours passed before emergency personnel were able to harness Annabel to safety.

    "She was in the tree about five hours," says her mother, Christy Beam.

    Annabel was not upside down the entire time. "She at one point was able to right herself. So, she was in a fetal position for the majority of the time."

    Amazingly, despite supposedly being knocked unconscious during the fall, she survived without injury.

    For a significant portion of her childhood prior to the accident, Annabel had been in constant "severe chronic pain." Her belly was greatly distended all the time. Eating and drinking was a challenge. She was taking ten medications a day.

    But after the fall of 30 feet onto her head, Annabel's symptoms of digestive disorders miraculously vanished.

    Doctors say that she shows no more symptoms, there is no more pain, and she is on zero medications today.

    What should have KILLED the little girl CURED her instead.


    DISASTER TURNED AROUND FOR GOOD

    A young man was seized by his jealous brothers and maliciously sold to slave dealers.

    As if that wasn't enough, his new slave master's wife had him thrown into prison after he refused her sexual advances.

    But by an utterly astonishing sequence of events, this young man was ultimately propelled into the favour of the king. And, would you believe, he ended up in a responsible government position.

    And, turning the tables on his brothers, he became the means of saving their lives during a crisis.

    What was intended for harm, turned out to everyone's good.


    INTENDED HARM TURNS TO GOOD

    An historical event now attested by archaeology was the 1446 BC escape of the Hebrew slaves from ancient Egypt.

    Travelling along a natural road from Egypt through the Wadi Watir canyon, they ended up facing the Gulf of Aqaba. In front of them was the sea, and either side a barrier of mountains. They found themselves in a cul-de-sac, with no way out except back through the way they had come.

    Then the alarm was raised. Pharaoh's army was after them, coming through that same canyon. Unarmed and defenceless, they were trapped.

    You may know the rest of the report. Nothing but a miracle could have saved them. And, yes, miracles do occur. Our diving teams have been collecting the evidence.

    In this case, the fugitives escaped as the sea opened, while the pursuing army perished on the seabed as the waters returned.

    Much of the Egyptian army's weaponry was washed up on the opposite shore - so the "defenceless" Hebrews now had weapons to defend themselves from any future attackers.

    So it was that threatened destruction from the pursuing army of a superpower ended up equipping defenceless fugitives with all the defence weapons they needed.

    What was intended to do them harm, was turned around for their good.


    MUSLIMS TURNED LIKE SCORPIONS
    AGAINST THEIR INITIATOR

    During Islam's First Jihad, Islam emerged to attack the organisation that created them, but to spare some others whomthat organisation wanted destroyed.

    Then, during the Second Jihad, Islam again intervened to protect those whom the same organisation wanted to destroy. Historians abound with reports of this amazing turn of events.

    In Europe, the ruling religion had passed a death decree against people known as Protestants, and the priests were stirring up the people to have those protesters put to death.

    But Soliman the Magnificent, setting out from Constantinople on the 23rd of April, 1526, at the head of a mighty Muslim army, and swollen at last to 300,000 Turks, swept into the center of Europe and struck terror into the hearts of the would-be assassins. They diverted the killer squads and gave support to the reformers.


    WORLD-CHANGING EVENTS
    POISED READY TO BREAK

    If you didn't know, the Muslim Third jihad has now begun, and we can expect history again to be repeated.

    According to an astonishing prophecy, America and the West will soon fall under new, oppressive laws, and certain citizens will be outlawed.

    But, if we read the prophecy correctly, just as the hand is raised to punish these dissenters who live by their conscience, suddenly and unexpectedly radical Islam strikes.

    Then the New World Order "army" is distracted while it "restrains" radical Islam and this group of unarmed and defenceless citizens will be largely sheltered for a time.

    Once again, threatening disaster will be turned around for good.


    if you didn't know, events have already started to happen in Europe, USA and Australia that are set to change the world overnight.


    EVENTS ARE CATCHING UP
    WITH THE PROPHECY

    Big upheavals are coming to your life and that of your family members.

    And I'm still in shock after 12 months of checking and re-checking some ancient prophecies that foretell what is happening. And after that, what's going to come.


    IN OUR DAY - and what is coming.

    (Yes, archaeology zooms in on ancient documents - and am I grateful that we discovered these just in time! You'll be glad too.)


    The fuse is burning and the clock is ticking!


    TO HELP YOU KNOW

    These prophecies are so urgent that I have placed all else on hold, and worked hard to get these ready for you - so you can get hold of these as quickly as possible.

    We've placed them On DVD so that you will be able to see events before they happen.

    May I emphasise that these are the most important DVDs I have ever produced in my life. They will give you a clear advantage.


    Here they are, in 4 parts:


    DVD 1. THE INVASION OF AMERICA,
    EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA
    * Terrorists swarming into position among millions of refugees... ready.
    * The rescue plan you need to know
    * Amazing prophecies come true
    * How a family feud 4,000 years old is triggering events in Europe, America and West right now!
    * Also enjoy the most beautiful true love story you have ever heard
    * Why do the fearless armed Arabs of Iraq refuse to sleep overnight in the ruins of ancient Babylon?
    * Why did a famous general suddenly divert his army from attacking his helpless enemy?
    * Why did a traffic officer pay the speeding ticket for the driver he had just fined?
    * The amazing Daniel 11 prophecy - foretold in plain language and fulfilling right now.

    DVD 2. WHY THE VATICAN CREATED ISLAM
    * Who is controlling the power moves?
    * Were you aware that the world's biggest, richest and most powerful organisation today was founded by a con man who practised magic?
    * Also, discover some of history's oddest and most amazing events
    * What induced two cannibal tribes fighting to the death to suddenly interrupt the battle and make peace?
    * How did a loaf of bread baking in the oven stop a family from being brutally murdered?
    * were you aware that a simple covering of water vapour destroyed an army of 23,000?
    * Would you like to know the startling reason why the Vatican created Islam?

    DVD 3. THE COMING MUSLIM EMPIRE AND ISRAEL
    * Will the emerging Muslim Caliphate seize Jerusalem?
    * See prophecies 2,500 years old that are coming to pass AT THIS MOMENT
    * The coming invasion of America
    * What big shock is in store for Protestant prophecy preachers?
    * Learn of the secret pact between the Zionists and Hitler
    * What about the Vatican's own plan to take Jerusalem?
    * Learn about the amazing "Three Woes" "Three Jihads" prophecy
    * Discover how a group of assassins saved those they were meant to kill and killed those they were supposed to spare!

    DVD 4. WORLD WAR 3 AND HOW TO SURVIVE
    * ISIS, CIA and Vatican connection
    * What the elite has planned for you - political... financial...religious...
    * And how to prepare for your family's survival
    * How can disasters be turned around to your advantage?
    * Four reasons why Rome wants to pit Islam against America
    * Were you aware of the surprising dual role Islam plays in history: destruction of evil and rescue of fugitives?
    * The most amazing prophecy: how global Islam will come to its end
    * And another prophecy has revealed in startling detail the Vatican's rise and its sudden coming dramatic end

    This four-part DVD report not only exposes the shocking truth of who is behind today's global moves (most people won't get this right!) - but also what practical steps you can take to rescue yourself and your family from the imminent dangers that are soon to be unleashed upon the world. You can be SAFE if you plan this carefully.

    AND YOU ALSO GET THIS FREE BONUS DVD: THE EAST AWAKE!
    * Who will win the coming war?
    * The impending mega earthquake. Cities topple, islands sink, the grid dies.
    * And what is the Second Coming? What will happen?

    Here is where, as a valued subscriber, you can claim this blockbuster package this week for only 33% of the regular price...

    Just go to http://www.beforeus.com/islam.html to claim your special package right now.

    THE MOST IMPORTANT VIDEOS YOU'LL EVER SEE

    But when you see this powerful information it will stun you. Just click on: http://www.beforeus.com/islam.html

    Thanks again for being on my newsletter list. I hope you stay safe.

    Take care,
    Jonathan Gray
    info@archaeologyanswers.com
    ------------------------------------------------------
    Please tell your friends
    ------------------------------------------------------

    Have you been enjoying the archaeology newsletters? If you know someone who would find these facts interesting, Click the URL below now to tell them, or copy and paste the URL below into your browser. http://www.beforeus.com
    ======================================================
    If you have any questions, please email me at
    info@archaeologyanswers.com
    ======================================================
    International explorer, archaeologist and author Jonathan Gray has travelled the world to gather data on ancient mysteries. He has penetrated some largely unexplored areas, including parts of the Amazon headwaters. The author has also led expeditions to the bottom of the sea and to remote mountain and desert regions of the world. He lectures internationally.

    ======================================================
    ARCHAEOLOGY NEWSFLASH 796 HER 30 FOOT FALL ON HER HEAD SAVED HER I am responsible if I do not share this very important news with you. What is currently happening right now is vitally connected with a very ancient document which it is my job to investigate and report on to you. And you will see this clearly as we go on. But first, were you aware of reverse events - miracles, if you like - that are occurring constantly around the world? THE 30-FOOT FALL ON HER HEAD CURED HER! In December 2011, 9 year old Annabel Beam fell 30 feet head-first down into the rotted-out trunk of a cottonwood tree. Several hours passed before emergency personnel were able to harness Annabel to safety. "She was in the tree about five hours," says her mother, Christy Beam. Annabel was not upside down the entire time. "She at one point was able to right herself. So, she was in a fetal position for the majority of the time." Amazingly, despite supposedly being knocked unconscious during the fall, she survived without injury. For a significant portion of her childhood prior to the accident, Annabel had been in constant "severe chronic pain." Her belly was greatly distended all the time. Eating and drinking was a challenge. She was taking ten medications a day. But after the fall of 30 feet onto her head, Annabel's symptoms of digestive disorders miraculously vanished. Doctors say that she shows no more symptoms, there is no more pain, and she is on zero medications today. What should have KILLED the little girl CURED her instead. DISASTER TURNED AROUND FOR GOOD A young man was seized by his jealous brothers and maliciously sold to slave dealers. As if that wasn't enough, his new slave master's wife had him thrown into prison after he refused her sexual advances. But by an utterly astonishing sequence of events, this young man was ultimately propelled into the favour of the king. And, would you believe, he ended up in a responsible government position. And, turning the tables on his brothers, he became the means of saving their lives during a crisis. What was intended for harm, turned out to everyone's good. INTENDED HARM TURNS TO GOOD An historical event now attested by archaeology was the 1446 BC escape of the Hebrew slaves from ancient Egypt. Travelling along a natural road from Egypt through the Wadi Watir canyon, they ended up facing the Gulf of Aqaba. In front of them was the sea, and either side a barrier of mountains. They found themselves in a cul-de-sac, with no way out except back through the way they had come. Then the alarm was raised. Pharaoh's army was after them, coming through that same canyon. Unarmed and defenceless, they were trapped. You may know the rest of the report. Nothing but a miracle could have saved them. And, yes, miracles do occur. Our diving teams have been collecting the evidence. In this case, the fugitives escaped as the sea opened, while the pursuing army perished on the seabed as the waters returned. Much of the Egyptian army's weaponry was washed up on the opposite shore - so the "defenceless" Hebrews now had weapons to defend themselves from any future attackers. So it was that threatened destruction from the pursuing army of a superpower ended up equipping defenceless fugitives with all the defence weapons they needed. What was intended to do them harm, was turned around for their good. MUSLIMS TURNED LIKE SCORPIONS AGAINST THEIR INITIATOR During Islam's First Jihad, Islam emerged to attack the organisation that created them, but to spare some others whomthat organisation wanted destroyed. Then, during the Second Jihad, Islam again intervened to protect those whom the same organisation wanted to destroy. Historians abound with reports of this amazing turn of events. In Europe, the ruling religion had passed a death decree against people known as Protestants, and the priests were stirring up the people to have those protesters put to death. But Soliman the Magnificent, setting out from Constantinople on the 23rd of April, 1526, at the head of a mighty Muslim army, and swollen at last to 300,000 Turks, swept into the center of Europe and struck terror into the hearts of the would-be assassins. They diverted the killer squads and gave support to the reformers. WORLD-CHANGING EVENTS POISED READY TO BREAK If you didn't know, the Muslim Third jihad has now begun, and we can expect history again to be repeated. According to an astonishing prophecy, America and the West will soon fall under new, oppressive laws, and certain citizens will be outlawed. But, if we read the prophecy correctly, just as the hand is raised to punish these dissenters who live by their conscience, suddenly and unexpectedly radical Islam strikes. Then the New World Order "army" is distracted while it "restrains" radical Islam and this group of unarmed and defenceless citizens will be largely sheltered for a time. Once again, threatening disaster will be turned around for good. if you didn't know, events have already started to happen in Europe, USA and Australia that are set to change the world overnight. EVENTS ARE CATCHING UP WITH THE PROPHECY Big upheavals are coming to your life and that of your family members. And I'm still in shock after 12 months of checking and re-checking some ancient prophecies that foretell what is happening. And after that, what's going to come. IN OUR DAY - and what is coming. (Yes, archaeology zooms in on ancient documents - and am I grateful that we discovered these just in time! You'll be glad too.) The fuse is burning and the clock is ticking! TO HELP YOU KNOW These prophecies are so urgent that I have placed all else on hold, and worked hard to get these ready for you - so you can get hold of these as quickly as possible. We've placed them On DVD so that you will be able to see events before they happen. May I emphasise that these are the most important DVDs I have ever produced in my life. They will give you a clear advantage. Here they are, in 4 parts: DVD 1. THE INVASION OF AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA * Terrorists swarming into position among millions of refugees... ready. * The rescue plan you need to know * Amazing prophecies come true * How a family feud 4,000 years old is triggering events in Europe, America and West right now! * Also enjoy the most beautiful true love story you have ever heard * Why do the fearless armed Arabs of Iraq refuse to sleep overnight in the ruins of ancient Babylon? * Why did a famous general suddenly divert his army from attacking his helpless enemy? * Why did a traffic officer pay the speeding ticket for the driver he had just fined? * The amazing Daniel 11 prophecy - foretold in plain language and fulfilling right now. DVD 2. WHY THE VATICAN CREATED ISLAM * Who is controlling the power moves? * Were you aware that the world's biggest, richest and most powerful organisation today was founded by a con man who practised magic? * Also, discover some of history's oddest and most amazing events * What induced two cannibal tribes fighting to the death to suddenly interrupt the battle and make peace? * How did a loaf of bread baking in the oven stop a family from being brutally murdered? * were you aware that a simple covering of water vapour destroyed an army of 23,000? * Would you like to know the startling reason why the Vatican created Islam? DVD 3. THE COMING MUSLIM EMPIRE AND ISRAEL * Will the emerging Muslim Caliphate seize Jerusalem? * See prophecies 2,500 years old that are coming to pass AT THIS MOMENT * The coming invasion of America * What big shock is in store for Protestant prophecy preachers? * Learn of the secret pact between the Zionists and Hitler * What about the Vatican's own plan to take Jerusalem? * Learn about the amazing "Three Woes" "Three Jihads" prophecy * Discover how a group of assassins saved those they were meant to kill and killed those they were supposed to spare! DVD 4. WORLD WAR 3 AND HOW TO SURVIVE * ISIS, CIA and Vatican connection * What the elite has planned for you - political... financial...religious... * And how to prepare for your family's survival * How can disasters be turned around to your advantage? * Four reasons why Rome wants to pit Islam against America * Were you aware of the surprising dual role Islam plays in history: destruction of evil and rescue of fugitives? * The most amazing prophecy: how global Islam will come to its end * And another prophecy has revealed in startling detail the Vatican's rise and its sudden coming dramatic end This four-part DVD report not only exposes the shocking truth of who is behind today's global moves (most people won't get this right!) - but also what practical steps you can take to rescue yourself and your family from the imminent dangers that are soon to be unleashed upon the world. You can be SAFE if you plan this carefully. AND YOU ALSO GET THIS FREE BONUS DVD: THE EAST AWAKE! * Who will win the coming war? * The impending mega earthquake. Cities topple, islands sink, the grid dies. * And what is the Second Coming? What will happen? Here is where, as a valued subscriber, you can claim this blockbuster package this week for only 33% of the regular price... Just go to http://www.beforeus.com/islam.html to claim your special package right now. THE MOST IMPORTANT VIDEOS YOU'LL EVER SEE But when you see this powerful information it will stun you. Just click on: http://www.beforeus.com/islam.html Thanks again for being on my newsletter list. I hope you stay safe. Take care, Jonathan Gray info@archaeologyanswers.com ------------------------------------------------------ Please tell your friends ------------------------------------------------------ Have you been enjoying the archaeology newsletters? If you know someone who would find these facts interesting, Click the URL below now to tell them, or copy and paste the URL below into your browser. http://www.beforeus.com ====================================================== If you have any questions, please email me at info@archaeologyanswers.com ====================================================== International explorer, archaeologist and author Jonathan Gray has travelled the world to gather data on ancient mysteries. He has penetrated some largely unexplored areas, including parts of the Amazon headwaters. The author has also led expeditions to the bottom of the sea and to remote mountain and desert regions of the world. He lectures internationally. ======================================================
    Would you like to know more
    WWW.BEFOREUS.COM
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  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4EtoBtlhyHE 馃 馃憤 馃槑 馃挜
    #Qanon #WorkTheBoard #LostMind #MAGA
    Where We Go 1 We Go All. The Truth is being highlighted and the Dark is being pushed into the light. Those who are against the plan are being swept aside. The clean up is taking out the trash and then giving them justice.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4EtoBtlhyHE 馃 馃憤 馃槑 馃挜 #Qanon #WorkTheBoard #LostMind #MAGA Where We Go 1 We Go All. The Truth is being highlighted and the Dark is being pushed into the light. Those who are against the plan are being swept aside. The clean up is taking out the trash and then giving them justice.
    RPN Featuring Spaceshot76 & TRUReporting - Friday Night Livestream Redux 7/26/19
    Protect Your Retirement! Add Gold to your IRA! https://bit.ly/31LULt3 Don't Wait! Click Here! Hour 2 featuring Spaceshot76 and TRUReporting from Friday Night...
    YouTube
    0 Comments 0 Shares
  • "Did Jeffrey Epstein have blackmail on Acosta and the attorneys who were supposed to be prosecuting him, but who swept this all under the rug? Or did the order simply come down to these men, saying “this is above your pay grade, just let it go”?

    Furthermore, why is Trump defending Acosta?" - Roy Batty

    https://dailystormer.name/acosta-defends-his-role-in-epstein-cover-up-bears-resemblance-to-sinister-goblin/
    "Did Jeffrey Epstein have blackmail on Acosta and the attorneys who were supposed to be prosecuting him, but who swept this all under the rug? Or did the order simply come down to these men, saying “this is above your pay grade, just let it go”? Furthermore, why is Trump defending Acosta?" - Roy Batty https://dailystormer.name/acosta-defends-his-role-in-epstein-cover-up-bears-resemblance-to-sinister-goblin/
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  • Paul Craig Roberts: The Genocide Of The Greek Nation
    August 21, 2018. SILVER DOCTORS.
    When political statements are made that the Greek Crisis is over, they Paul Craig Roberts says they really mean that Greece is over. Here’s why…

    by Paul Craig Roberts via PaulCraigRoberts.org

    Genocide of the Greek Nation

    Paul Craig Roberts

    The political and media coverup of the genocide of the Greek Nation began yesterday (August 20) with European Union and other political statements announcing that the Greek Crisis is over. What they mean is that Greece is over, dead, and done with. It has been exploited to the limit, and the carcas has been thrown to the dogs.

    350,000 Greeks, mainly the young and professionals, have fled dead Greece. The birth rate is far below the rate necessary to sustain the remaining population. The austerity imposed on the Greek people by the EU, the IMF, and the Greek government has resulted in the contraction of the Greek economy by 25%. The decline is the equivalent of America’s Great Depression, but in Greece the effects were worst. President Franklin D. Roosevelt softened the impact of massive unemployment with the Social Security Act other elements of a social safety net such as deposit insurance, and public works programs, whereas the Greek government following the orders from the IMF and EU worsened the impact of massive unemployment by stripping away the social safety net.

    Traditionally, when a sovereign country, whether by corruption, mismanagement, bad luck, or unexpected events, found itself unable to repay its debts, the country’s creditors wrote down the debts to the level that the indebted country could service.

    With Greece there was a game change. The European Central Bank, led by Jean-Claude Trichet, and the International Monetary Fund ruled that Greece had to pay the full amount of interest and principal on its government bonds held by German, Dutch, French, and Italian banks.

    How was this to be achieved?

    In two ways, both of which greatly worsened the crisis, leaving Greece today in a far worst position that it was in at the beginning of the crisis almost a decade ago.

    At the beginning of the “crisis,” which would have easily been resolved by writing down part of the debt, the Greek debt was 129% of Greek Gross Domestic Product. Today Greek debt is 180% of GDP.

    Why?

    Greece was lent more money to pay interest to Greece’s creditors, so that they would not have to lose one cent. The additonal lending, called a “bailout” by the presstitute financial media, was not a bailout of Greece. It was a bailout of Greece’s creditors.

    The Obama regime encouraged this bailout, because the American banks, expecting a bailout, had sold credit default swaps on Greek debt. Without a bailout the US banks would have lost their bet and paid default insurance on Greek Bonds.

    Additionally, Greece was required to sell its public assets to foreigners and to decimate the Greek social safety net, reducing pensions, for example, to below subsistance incomes and so radically reducing medical care that people die before they can get treatment.

    If memory serves, China bought the Greek seaports. Germay bought the airport. Various German and European entities bought the Greek municipal water companies. Real estate speculators bought protected Greek Islands for real estate development.

    This plunder of Greek public property did not go toward reducing the debt that Greek owed. It went, along with the new loans, to paying the interest.

    The debt, larger than ever still stands. The economy is smaller than ever as is the Greek population that bears the debt.

    The declaration that the Greek crisis is over is merely a statement that there is nothing left to extract from the Greek people for the interest of the foreign banks. Greece is sinking fast. All of the income associated with sea ports, airport, municipal utilities, and the rest of public property that was forcibly privatized now belongs to foreigners who take the money out of the country, thus further driving down the Greek economy.

    The Greeks have not only had their economic future stolen from them. They have also lost their sovereignty. Greece is not a sovereign nation. It is ruled by the EU and the IMF. In my 2013 book, The Failure of Laissez Faire Capitalism, in Part III, “The End of Sovereignty,” I described clearly how this was done.

    The Greek people were betrayed by the Tsipras government. They had the option of revolting and using violence to overthrow the government that sold them out to international bankers. Instead, the Greeks accepted their own destruction and did nothing. Essentially, the Greek population committed mass suicide.

    The world financial crisis of 2008 is not over. It has been swept under the rug of massive money creation by the US, EU, UK, and Japanese central banks. The creation of money has far outpaced the growth of real output and has driven up values of financial assets beyond what can be supported by “conditions on the ground.”

    How this crisis plays out remains to be seen. It could result in the destruction of Western civilization. Will Dog eat dog? After Greece, will it be Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Australia, Canada, until none are left?

    The entirety of the Western World lives in lies fomented by powerful economic interest groups to serve their interests. There is no independent media except online, and those elements are being demonized and denied access. Peoples who live in a world of controlled information have no idea of what is happening to them. Therefore, they cannot act in their interest.

    Paul Craig Roberts: The Genocide Of The Greek Nation August 21, 2018. SILVER DOCTORS. When political statements are made that the Greek Crisis is over, they Paul Craig Roberts says they really mean that Greece is over. Here’s why… by Paul Craig Roberts via PaulCraigRoberts.org Genocide of the Greek Nation Paul Craig Roberts The political and media coverup of the genocide of the Greek Nation began yesterday (August 20) with European Union and other political statements announcing that the Greek Crisis is over. What they mean is that Greece is over, dead, and done with. It has been exploited to the limit, and the carcas has been thrown to the dogs. 350,000 Greeks, mainly the young and professionals, have fled dead Greece. The birth rate is far below the rate necessary to sustain the remaining population. The austerity imposed on the Greek people by the EU, the IMF, and the Greek government has resulted in the contraction of the Greek economy by 25%. The decline is the equivalent of America’s Great Depression, but in Greece the effects were worst. President Franklin D. Roosevelt softened the impact of massive unemployment with the Social Security Act other elements of a social safety net such as deposit insurance, and public works programs, whereas the Greek government following the orders from the IMF and EU worsened the impact of massive unemployment by stripping away the social safety net. Traditionally, when a sovereign country, whether by corruption, mismanagement, bad luck, or unexpected events, found itself unable to repay its debts, the country’s creditors wrote down the debts to the level that the indebted country could service. With Greece there was a game change. The European Central Bank, led by Jean-Claude Trichet, and the International Monetary Fund ruled that Greece had to pay the full amount of interest and principal on its government bonds held by German, Dutch, French, and Italian banks. How was this to be achieved? In two ways, both of which greatly worsened the crisis, leaving Greece today in a far worst position that it was in at the beginning of the crisis almost a decade ago. At the beginning of the “crisis,” which would have easily been resolved by writing down part of the debt, the Greek debt was 129% of Greek Gross Domestic Product. Today Greek debt is 180% of GDP. Why? Greece was lent more money to pay interest to Greece’s creditors, so that they would not have to lose one cent. The additonal lending, called a “bailout” by the presstitute financial media, was not a bailout of Greece. It was a bailout of Greece’s creditors. The Obama regime encouraged this bailout, because the American banks, expecting a bailout, had sold credit default swaps on Greek debt. Without a bailout the US banks would have lost their bet and paid default insurance on Greek Bonds. Additionally, Greece was required to sell its public assets to foreigners and to decimate the Greek social safety net, reducing pensions, for example, to below subsistance incomes and so radically reducing medical care that people die before they can get treatment. If memory serves, China bought the Greek seaports. Germay bought the airport. Various German and European entities bought the Greek municipal water companies. Real estate speculators bought protected Greek Islands for real estate development. This plunder of Greek public property did not go toward reducing the debt that Greek owed. It went, along with the new loans, to paying the interest. The debt, larger than ever still stands. The economy is smaller than ever as is the Greek population that bears the debt. The declaration that the Greek crisis is over is merely a statement that there is nothing left to extract from the Greek people for the interest of the foreign banks. Greece is sinking fast. All of the income associated with sea ports, airport, municipal utilities, and the rest of public property that was forcibly privatized now belongs to foreigners who take the money out of the country, thus further driving down the Greek economy. The Greeks have not only had their economic future stolen from them. They have also lost their sovereignty. Greece is not a sovereign nation. It is ruled by the EU and the IMF. In my 2013 book, The Failure of Laissez Faire Capitalism, in Part III, “The End of Sovereignty,” I described clearly how this was done. The Greek people were betrayed by the Tsipras government. They had the option of revolting and using violence to overthrow the government that sold them out to international bankers. Instead, the Greeks accepted their own destruction and did nothing. Essentially, the Greek population committed mass suicide. The world financial crisis of 2008 is not over. It has been swept under the rug of massive money creation by the US, EU, UK, and Japanese central banks. The creation of money has far outpaced the growth of real output and has driven up values of financial assets beyond what can be supported by “conditions on the ground.” How this crisis plays out remains to be seen. It could result in the destruction of Western civilization. Will Dog eat dog? After Greece, will it be Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Australia, Canada, until none are left? The entirety of the Western World lives in lies fomented by powerful economic interest groups to serve their interests. There is no independent media except online, and those elements are being demonized and denied access. Peoples who live in a world of controlled information have no idea of what is happening to them. Therefore, they cannot act in their interest.
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  • ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS 780 - NEWSFLASH EXTRA SPECIAL

    THIS WILL CHANGE YOUR WORLD OVERNIGHT

    Yes, this is set to be the most exciting year in your life. You and I and our society are about to be swept up into something BIG! Very big.


    ISLAM INVASION

    You've heard about the flood of "refugees" from a Middle East war zone? Many are now waking up to the truth. This is mostly an organized invasion - the first step of a planned global jihad.

    How will it work? Infiltrate into position, then rise up.

    These people are not seeking asylum in other Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia, Jordan, or any other Islamic nation.

    They are all trying to get into Western nations in Europe, or the USA, and maybe even your country.

    Another intriguing fact is they are largely young males between the age of 17 to 25.

    An immigration? Don't believe it. It's an invasion. They are getting into position for the coming global jihad.

    If you didn't know, it has now been discovered that coming through with the waves of refugees are numerous trained terrorists.

    For example, five men were arrested attempting to cross the Bulgarian-Macedonian border with specific Jihadists prayers, and decapitation videos on their phones.

    They had been posing as refugees.


    PLANNED TAKEOVER

    Have you heard the term "hijrah"? It means a planned takeover by immigration. The current massive hijrah was announced last January.

    A supporter of ISIS uploaded a document in Arabic that urged Muslims to get to Libya for its proximity to southern Europe to facilitate infiltration of European cities ("It has a long coast and looks upon the southern Crusader states, which can be reached with ease by even a rudimentary boat”).

    In February, 2015, transcripts of telephone intercepts published in Italy said ISIS was threatening to send 500,000 migrants as a "psychological weapon" against Europe.

    The Italian Minister for the Interior, Angelino Alfano, said at the time, "We are at risk of an exodus without precedent."

    That same month, the Turkish intelligence warned police that up to 3,000 trained jihadists were seeking to cross through Turkey into Europe.

    A Polish eye-witness, Kamil Bulonis, who was present on the Italian-Austrian border on September 5, 2015, as swarms of "refugees" poured across the border to invade Austria and Germany, reports that they surrounded a car of an elderly Italian woman, pulled her by her hair out of the car and wanted to drive away in the car.

    "They tried to overturn the bus in I which travelled myself with a group of others. They were throwing faeces at us, banging on the doors to force the driver to open them, spat at the wind-screen.

    "Cars arrived with humanitarian aid – mainly food and water and they were just overturning those cars."


    THE WORLD IS ABOUT TO CHANGE FOREVER

    Germans lost their jobs at the four-star Hotel Maritim so that it could house Muslim migrants. The workers and shop owners in this hotel, some of whom had worked there for more than 25 years, were told they would no longer have jobs, because the hotel would be converted into migrant housing

    Muslim migrants are being moved into churches to live, which necessitates the removal of the pulpit and the seats.

    A female physician in Munich, Germany, reports: "The local press is forbidden to write about it. What would have happened to a German if he had stabbed a doctor and nurses with a knife? Or if he had flung his own syphilis-infected urine into a nurse’s face and so threatened her with infection? At a minimum he’d go straight to jail and later to court. With these people – so far, nothing has happened."

    German politician Brigitte Meier summed up the situation: "We cannot guarantee the public safety anymore."

    And in Sweden, a leading politician reportedly says the country is facing a refugee catastrophe, which will lead to the 'country collapsing.'

    The publicised one million migrant figure is wrong . The latest invasion reflects a truer number of five million, not one million – five million invaders.


    INFILTRATORS IN POSITION... WAITING

    Regarding the mass migration which has begun into the USA, Walid Shoebat, a former radical Islamist, says that the radical Islamists already here in the US have been making bombs in the basements of their houses in preparation for the jihad.- Walid Shoebat.com

    An army of suicide bombers would never mount a frontal assault like a conventional army landing on a beachhead.

    No, they would have to infiltrate peacefully into the nations they want to destroy so they would already be in key positions when the Global Jihad is declared as soon as the Caliphate is formed.

    They will be ready to take their orders from a sitting Caliph so they can all simultaneously make their suicide attacks.


    WORLD-CHANGING EVENTS
    POISED READY TO BREAK

    If you didn't know, events have just started to happen that are set to change the world overnight.

    Big upheavals are coming to your life and that of your family members.

    Do you know, I'm still in shock after 5 months of checking and re-checking two ancient prophecies that independently foretell what has now started to happen. And after that, what's going to come.

    These prophecies have already been coming true, step by step, with chronological accuracy. And they foretell what is to come.


    IN OUR DAY - and what is coming.

    (Yes, archaeology zooms in on two ancient documents - and am I grateful that we discovered these just in time! You'll be glad too.)


    The fuse is burning and the clock is ticking!


    TO HELP YOU KNOW

    These prophecies are so urgent that I have placed all else on hold, so you can have these as quickly and easily as possible, and...

    SEE EVENTS BEFORE THEY HAPPEN.

    These most important DVDs we have ever released are in 4 parts:


    1. THE INVASION OF AMERICA,
    EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA
    * Terrorists swarming into position among millions of refugees... ready.
    * The rescue plan you need to know
    * Amazing prophecies come true
    * How a family feud 4,000 years old is triggering events in Europe, America and West right now!
    * Also enjoy the most beautiful true love story you have ever heard
    * Why do the fearless armed Arabs of Iraq refuse to sleep overnight in the ruins of ancient Babylon?
    * Why did a famous general suddenly divert his army from attacking his helpless enemy?
    * Why did a traffic officer pay the speeding ticket for the driver he had just fined?
    * The amazing Daniel 11 prophecy - foretold in plain language and fulfilling right now.

    2. WHY THE VATICAN CREATED ISLAM
    * Who is controlling the power moves?
    * Were you aware that the world's biggest, richest and most powerful organization today was founded by a con man who practised magic?
    * Also, discover some of history's oddest and most amazing events
    * What induced two cannibal tribes fighting to the death to suddenly interrupt the battle and make peace?
    * How did a loaf of bread baking in the oven stop a family from being brutally murdered?
    * were you aware that a simple covering of water vapor destroyed an army of 23,000?
    * Would you like to know the startling reason why the Vatican created Islam?

    3. THE COMING MUSLIM EMPIRE AND ISRAEL
    *Will the emerging Caliphate seize Jerusalem?
    * Prophecies 2,500 years old that are coming to pass AT THIS MOMENT
    * The coming invasion of America
    * What big shock is in store for Protestant prophecy preachers?
    * Learn of the secret pact between the Zionists and Hitler
    * Is the Vatican planning to take Jerusalem?
    * The amazing "Three Woes" prophecy
    * How assassins saved those they were meant to kill and killed those they were supposed to spare

    4. WORLD WAR 3 AND HOW TO SURVIVE
    * What the elite has planned for you - political... financial...religious...
    * And how to prepare for your family's survival
    * How can disasters be turned around for your benefit?
    * Four reasons why Rome wants to pit Islam against America
    * The surprising dual role Islam plays in history: destruction of evil and rescue of fugitives
    * Amazing prophecy: how global Islam will end
    * The Vatican's predicted rise and coming dramatic end

    This four-part DVD report not only exposes the shocking truth of who is behind today's global moves (most people won't get this right!) - but also what practical steps you can take to rescue yourself and your family from the imminent dangers that are soon to be unleashed upon the world. You can be SAFE if you plan this carefully.

    AND YOU ALSO GET THIS FREE BONUS DVD: THE EAST AWAKE!
    * Who will win the coming war?
    * The impending mega earthquake. Cities topple, islands sink, the grid dies.
    * And what is the Second Coming? What will happen?


    Here is where, as a valued subscriber, you can claim this blockbuster package at the reduced introductory price...

    Just go to http://www.beforeus.com/islam.html to claim your special copy right now.

    Best wishes
    Jonathan Gray

    DO YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS?

    Please email me your questions. I am here to help you with any questions on ancient mysteries. Just email me at info@archaeologyanswers.com

    ---------------------------------------------
    PLEASE TELL YOUR FRIENDS
    ---------------------------------------------

    Did you enjoy this information?

    If you know someone who would find these facts interesting, Click the URL below now to email it to them, or copy and paste the URL below into your browser. http://www.beforeus.com

    You are welcome to put it on your own website exactly as it is, without change, including our email address.

    ======================================================
    International explorer, archaeologist and author Jonathan Gray has travelled the world to gather data on ancient mysteries. He has penetrated some largely unexplored areas, including parts of the Amazon headwaters. The author has also led expeditions to the bottom of the sea and to remote mountain and desert regions of the world. He lectures internationally.
    ======================================================
    ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS 780 - NEWSFLASH EXTRA SPECIAL THIS WILL CHANGE YOUR WORLD OVERNIGHT Yes, this is set to be the most exciting year in your life. You and I and our society are about to be swept up into something BIG! Very big. ISLAM INVASION You've heard about the flood of "refugees" from a Middle East war zone? Many are now waking up to the truth. This is mostly an organized invasion - the first step of a planned global jihad. How will it work? Infiltrate into position, then rise up. These people are not seeking asylum in other Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia, Jordan, or any other Islamic nation. They are all trying to get into Western nations in Europe, or the USA, and maybe even your country. Another intriguing fact is they are largely young males between the age of 17 to 25. An immigration? Don't believe it. It's an invasion. They are getting into position for the coming global jihad. If you didn't know, it has now been discovered that coming through with the waves of refugees are numerous trained terrorists. For example, five men were arrested attempting to cross the Bulgarian-Macedonian border with specific Jihadists prayers, and decapitation videos on their phones. They had been posing as refugees. PLANNED TAKEOVER Have you heard the term "hijrah"? It means a planned takeover by immigration. The current massive hijrah was announced last January. A supporter of ISIS uploaded a document in Arabic that urged Muslims to get to Libya for its proximity to southern Europe to facilitate infiltration of European cities ("It has a long coast and looks upon the southern Crusader states, which can be reached with ease by even a rudimentary boat”). In February, 2015, transcripts of telephone intercepts published in Italy said ISIS was threatening to send 500,000 migrants as a "psychological weapon" against Europe. The Italian Minister for the Interior, Angelino Alfano, said at the time, "We are at risk of an exodus without precedent." That same month, the Turkish intelligence warned police that up to 3,000 trained jihadists were seeking to cross through Turkey into Europe. A Polish eye-witness, Kamil Bulonis, who was present on the Italian-Austrian border on September 5, 2015, as swarms of "refugees" poured across the border to invade Austria and Germany, reports that they surrounded a car of an elderly Italian woman, pulled her by her hair out of the car and wanted to drive away in the car. "They tried to overturn the bus in I which travelled myself with a group of others. They were throwing faeces at us, banging on the doors to force the driver to open them, spat at the wind-screen. "Cars arrived with humanitarian aid – mainly food and water and they were just overturning those cars." THE WORLD IS ABOUT TO CHANGE FOREVER Germans lost their jobs at the four-star Hotel Maritim so that it could house Muslim migrants. The workers and shop owners in this hotel, some of whom had worked there for more than 25 years, were told they would no longer have jobs, because the hotel would be converted into migrant housing Muslim migrants are being moved into churches to live, which necessitates the removal of the pulpit and the seats. A female physician in Munich, Germany, reports: "The local press is forbidden to write about it. What would have happened to a German if he had stabbed a doctor and nurses with a knife? Or if he had flung his own syphilis-infected urine into a nurse’s face and so threatened her with infection? At a minimum he’d go straight to jail and later to court. With these people – so far, nothing has happened." German politician Brigitte Meier summed up the situation: "We cannot guarantee the public safety anymore." And in Sweden, a leading politician reportedly says the country is facing a refugee catastrophe, which will lead to the 'country collapsing.' The publicised one million migrant figure is wrong . The latest invasion reflects a truer number of five million, not one million – five million invaders. INFILTRATORS IN POSITION... WAITING Regarding the mass migration which has begun into the USA, Walid Shoebat, a former radical Islamist, says that the radical Islamists already here in the US have been making bombs in the basements of their houses in preparation for the jihad.- Walid Shoebat.com An army of suicide bombers would never mount a frontal assault like a conventional army landing on a beachhead. No, they would have to infiltrate peacefully into the nations they want to destroy so they would already be in key positions when the Global Jihad is declared as soon as the Caliphate is formed. They will be ready to take their orders from a sitting Caliph so they can all simultaneously make their suicide attacks. WORLD-CHANGING EVENTS POISED READY TO BREAK If you didn't know, events have just started to happen that are set to change the world overnight. Big upheavals are coming to your life and that of your family members. Do you know, I'm still in shock after 5 months of checking and re-checking two ancient prophecies that independently foretell what has now started to happen. And after that, what's going to come. These prophecies have already been coming true, step by step, with chronological accuracy. And they foretell what is to come. IN OUR DAY - and what is coming. (Yes, archaeology zooms in on two ancient documents - and am I grateful that we discovered these just in time! You'll be glad too.) The fuse is burning and the clock is ticking! TO HELP YOU KNOW These prophecies are so urgent that I have placed all else on hold, so you can have these as quickly and easily as possible, and... SEE EVENTS BEFORE THEY HAPPEN. These most important DVDs we have ever released are in 4 parts: 1. THE INVASION OF AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA * Terrorists swarming into position among millions of refugees... ready. * The rescue plan you need to know * Amazing prophecies come true * How a family feud 4,000 years old is triggering events in Europe, America and West right now! * Also enjoy the most beautiful true love story you have ever heard * Why do the fearless armed Arabs of Iraq refuse to sleep overnight in the ruins of ancient Babylon? * Why did a famous general suddenly divert his army from attacking his helpless enemy? * Why did a traffic officer pay the speeding ticket for the driver he had just fined? * The amazing Daniel 11 prophecy - foretold in plain language and fulfilling right now. 2. WHY THE VATICAN CREATED ISLAM * Who is controlling the power moves? * Were you aware that the world's biggest, richest and most powerful organization today was founded by a con man who practised magic? * Also, discover some of history's oddest and most amazing events * What induced two cannibal tribes fighting to the death to suddenly interrupt the battle and make peace? * How did a loaf of bread baking in the oven stop a family from being brutally murdered? * were you aware that a simple covering of water vapor destroyed an army of 23,000? * Would you like to know the startling reason why the Vatican created Islam? 3. THE COMING MUSLIM EMPIRE AND ISRAEL *Will the emerging Caliphate seize Jerusalem? * Prophecies 2,500 years old that are coming to pass AT THIS MOMENT * The coming invasion of America * What big shock is in store for Protestant prophecy preachers? * Learn of the secret pact between the Zionists and Hitler * Is the Vatican planning to take Jerusalem? * The amazing "Three Woes" prophecy * How assassins saved those they were meant to kill and killed those they were supposed to spare 4. WORLD WAR 3 AND HOW TO SURVIVE * What the elite has planned for you - political... financial...religious... * And how to prepare for your family's survival * How can disasters be turned around for your benefit? * Four reasons why Rome wants to pit Islam against America * The surprising dual role Islam plays in history: destruction of evil and rescue of fugitives * Amazing prophecy: how global Islam will end * The Vatican's predicted rise and coming dramatic end This four-part DVD report not only exposes the shocking truth of who is behind today's global moves (most people won't get this right!) - but also what practical steps you can take to rescue yourself and your family from the imminent dangers that are soon to be unleashed upon the world. You can be SAFE if you plan this carefully. AND YOU ALSO GET THIS FREE BONUS DVD: THE EAST AWAKE! * Who will win the coming war? * The impending mega earthquake. Cities topple, islands sink, the grid dies. * And what is the Second Coming? What will happen? Here is where, as a valued subscriber, you can claim this blockbuster package at the reduced introductory price... Just go to http://www.beforeus.com/islam.html to claim your special copy right now. Best wishes Jonathan Gray DO YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS? Please email me your questions. I am here to help you with any questions on ancient mysteries. Just email me at info@archaeologyanswers.com --------------------------------------------- PLEASE TELL YOUR FRIENDS --------------------------------------------- Did you enjoy this information? If you know someone who would find these facts interesting, Click the URL below now to email it to them, or copy and paste the URL below into your browser. http://www.beforeus.com You are welcome to put it on your own website exactly as it is, without change, including our email address. ====================================================== International explorer, archaeologist and author Jonathan Gray has travelled the world to gather data on ancient mysteries. He has penetrated some largely unexplored areas, including parts of the Amazon headwaters. The author has also led expeditions to the bottom of the sea and to remote mountain and desert regions of the world. He lectures internationally. ======================================================
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  • https://www.westernjournal.com/ct/bombshell-cops-linked-crack-pipe-bidens-son-days-election-charges-swept-rug/
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  • Decriminalizing the Drug War? Calculating the Damage from a Century of Drug Prohibition
    https://desultoryheroics.com/2019/05/06/decriminalizing-the-drug-war/
    Posted By Luther Blissett
    By Alfred W. McCoy: TomDispatch 5/6/19

    We live in a time of change, when people are questioning old assumptions and seeking new directions. In the ongoing debate over health care, social justice, and border security, there is, however, one overlooked issue that should be at the top of everyone’s agenda, from Democratic Socialists to libertarian Republicans: America’s longest war.

    No, not the one in Afghanistan. I mean the drug war.

    For more than a century, the U.S. has worked through the U.N. (and its predecessor, the League of Nations) to build a harsh global drug prohibition regime — grounded in draconian laws, enforced by pervasive policing, and punished with mass incarceration.

    For the past half-century, the U.S. has also waged its own “war on drugs” that has complicated its foreign policy, compromised its electoral democracy, and contributed to social inequality. Perhaps the time has finally come to assess the damage that drug war has caused and consider alternatives.

    Even though I first made my mark with a 1972 book that the CIA tried to suppress on the heroin trade in Southeast Asia, it’s taken me most of my life to grasp all the complex ways this country’s drug war, from Afghanistan to Colombia, the Mexican border to inner-city Chicago, has shaped American society.

    Last summer, a French director doing a documentary interviewed me for seven hours about the history of illicit narcotics. As we moved from the seventeenth century to the present and from Asia to America, I found myself trying to answer the same relentless question: What had 50 years of observation actually drilled into me, beyond some random facts, about the character of the illicit traffic in drugs?

    At the broadest level, the past half-century turns out to have taught me that drugs aren’t just drugs, drug dealers aren’t just “pushers,” and drug users aren’t just “junkies” (that is, outcasts of no consequence). Illicit drugs are major global commodities that continue to influence U.S. politics, both national and international.

    And our drug wars create profitable covert netherworlds in which those very drugs flourish and become even more profitable.

    Indeed, the U.N. once estimated that the transnational traffic, which supplied drugs to 4.2% of the world’s adult population, was a $400 billion industry, the equivalent of 8% of global trade.

    In ways that few seem to understand, illicit drugs have had a profound influence on modern America, shaping our international politics, national elections, and domestic social relations.

    Yet a feeling that illicit drugs belong to a marginalized demimonde has made U.S. drug policy the sole property of law enforcement and not health care, education, or urban development.

    During this process of reflection, I’ve returned to three conversations I had back in 1971 when I was a 26-year-old graduate student researching that first book of mine, The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. In the course of an 18-month odyssey around the globe, I met three men, deeply involved in the drug wars, whose words I was then too young to fully absorb.

    The first was Lucien Conein, a “legendary” CIA operative whose covert career ranged from parachuting into North Vietnam in 1945 to train communist guerrillas with Ho Chi Minh to organizing the CIA coup that killed South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963.

    In the course of our interview at his modest home near CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, he laid out just how the Agency’s operatives, like so many Corsican gangsters, practiced the “clandestine arts” of conducting complex operations beyond the bounds of civil society and how such “arts” were, in fact, the heart and soul of both covert operations and the drug trade.

    Second came Colonel Roger Trinquier, whose life in a French drug netherworld extended from commanding paratroopers in the opium-growing highlands of Vietnam during the First Indochina War of the early 1950s to serving as deputy to General Jacques Massu in his campaign of murder and torture in the Battle of Algiers in 1957.

    During an interview in his elegant Paris apartment, Trinquier explained how he helped fund his own paratroop operations through Indochina’s illicit opium traffic. Emerging from that interview, I felt almost overwhelmed by the aura of Nietzschean omnipotence that Trinquier had clearly gained from his many years in this shadowy realm of drugs and death.

    My last mentor on the subject of drugs was Tom Tripodi, a covert operative who had trained Cuban exiles in Florida for the CIA’s 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion and then, in the late 1970s, penetrated mafia networks in Sicily for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.

    In 1971, he appeared at my front door in New Haven, Connecticut, identified himself as a senior agent for the Treasury Department’s Bureau of Narcotics, and insisted that the Bureau was worried about my future book.

    Rather tentatively, I showed him just a few draft pages of my manuscript for The Politics of Heroin and he promptly offered to help me make it as accurate as possible.

    During later visits, I would hand him chapters and he would sit in a rocking chair, shirt sleeves rolled up, revolver in his shoulder holster, scribbling corrections and telling remarkable stories about the drug trade — like the time his Bureau found that French intelligence was protecting the Corsican syndicates smuggling heroin into New York City.

    Far more important, though, through him I grasped how ad hoc alliances between criminal traffickers and the CIA regularly helped both the Agency and the drug trade prosper.

    Looking back, I can now see how those veteran operatives were each describing to me a clandestine political domain, a covert netherworld in which government agents, military men, and drug traders were freed from the shackles of civil society and empowered to form secret armies, overthrow governments, and even, perhaps, kill a foreign president.

    At its core, this netherworld was then and remains today an invisible political realm inhabited by criminal actors and practitioners of Conein’s “clandestine arts.”

    Offering some sense of the scale of this social milieu, in 1997 the United Nations reported that transnational crime syndicates had 3.3 million members worldwide who trafficked in drugs, arms, humans, and endangered species. Meanwhile, during the Cold War, all the major powers — Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States — deployed expanded clandestine services worldwide, making covert operations a central facet of geopolitical power. The end of the Cold War has in no way changed this reality.

    For over a century now, states and empires have used their expanding powers for moral prohibition campaigns that have periodically transformed alcohol, gambling, tobacco, and, above all, drugs into an illicit commerce that generates sufficient cash to sustain covert netherworlds.

    Drugs and U.S. Foreign Policy

    The influence of illicit drugs on U.S. foreign policy was evident between 1979 and 2019 in the abysmal failure of its never-ending wars in Afghanistan. Over a period of 40 years, two U.S. interventions there fostered all the conditions for just such a covert netherworld.

    While mobilizing Islamic fundamentalists to fight the Soviet occupation of that country in the 1980s, the CIA tolerated opium trafficking by its Afghan mujahedeen allies, while arming them for a guerrilla war that would ravage the countryside, destroying conventional agriculture and herding.

    In the decade after superpower intervention ended in 1989, a devastating civil war and then Taliban rule only increased the country’s dependence upon drugs, raising opium production from 250 tons in 1979 to 4,600 tons by 1999.

    This 20-fold increase transformed Afghanistan from a diverse agricultural economy into a country with the world’s first opium monocrop — that is, a land thoroughly dependent on illicit drugs for exports, employment, and taxes. Demonstrating that dependence, in 2000 when the Taliban banned opium in a bid for diplomatic recognition and cut production to just 185 tons, the rural economy imploded and their regime collapsed as the first U.S. bombs fell in October 2001.

    To say the least, the U.S. invasion and occupation of 2001-2002 failed to effectively deal with the drug situation in the country.

    As a start, to capture the Taliban-controlled capital, Kabul, the CIA had mobilized Northern Alliance leaders who had long dominated the drug trade in northeast Afghanistan, as well as Pashtun warlords active as drug smugglers in the southeastern part of the country. In the process, they created a post-war politics ideal for the expansion of opium cultivation.

    Even though output surged in the first three years of the U.S. occupation, Washington remained uninterested, resisting anything that might weaken military operations against the Taliban guerrillas.

    Testifying to this policy’s failure, the U.N.’s Afghanistan Opium Survey 2007 reported that the harvest that year reached a record 8,200 tons, generating 53% of the country’s gross domestic product, while accounting for 93% of the world’s illicit narcotics supply.

    When a single commodity represents over half of a nation’s economy, everyone — officials, rebels, merchants, and traffickers — is directly or indirectly implicated. In 2016, the New York Times reported that both Taliban rebels and provincial officials opposing them were locked in a struggle for control of the lucrative drug traffic in Helmand Province, the source of nearly half the country’s opium.

    A year later, the harvest reached a record 9,000 tons, which, according to the U.S. command, provided 60% of the Taliban’s funding. Desperate to cut that funding, American commanders dispatched F-22 fighters and B-52 bombers to destroy the insurgency’s heroin laboratories in Helmand — doing inconsequential damage to a handful of crude labs and revealing the impotence of even the most powerful weaponry against the social power of the covert drug netherworld.

    With unchecked opium production sustaining Taliban resistance for the past 17 years and capable of doing so for another 17, the only U.S. exit strategy now seems to be restoring those rebels to power in a coalition government — a policy tantamount to conceding defeat in its longest military intervention and least successful drug war.

    High Priests of Prohibition

    For the past half-century, the ever-failing U.S. drug war has found a compliant handmaiden at the U.N., whose dubious role when it comes to drug policy stands in stark contrast to its positive work on issues like climate change and peace-keeping.

    In 1997, the director of U.N. drug control, Dr. Pino Arlacchi, proclaimed a 10-year program to eradicate all illicit opium and coca cultivation from the face of the planet, starting in Afghanistan.

    A decade later, his successor, Antonio Maria Costa, glossing over that failure, announced in the U.N.’s World Drug Report 2007 that “drug control is working and the world drug problem is being contained.”

    While U.N. leaders were making such grandiloquent promises about drug prohibition, the world’s illicit opium production was, in fact, rising 10-fold from just 1,200 tons in 1971, the year the U.S. drug war officially started, to a record 10,500 tons by 2017.

    This gap between triumphal rhetoric and dismal reality cries out for an explanation.

    That 10-fold increase in illicit opium supply is the result of a market dynamic I’ve termed “the stimulus of prohibition.”

    At the most basic level, prohibition is the necessary precondition for the global narcotics trade, creating both local drug lords and transnational syndicates that control this vast commerce.

    Prohibition, of course, guarantees the existence and well-being of such criminal syndicates which, to evade interdiction, constantly shift and build up their smuggling routes, hierarchies, and mechanisms, encouraging a worldwide proliferation of trafficking and consumption, while ensuring that the drug netherworld will only grow.

    In seeking to prohibit addictive drugs, U.S. and U.N. drug warriors act as if mobilizing for forceful repression could actually reduce drug trafficking, thanks to the imagined inelasticity of, or limits on, the global narcotics supply.

    In practice, however, when suppression reduces the opium supply from one area (Burma or Thailand), the global price just rises, spurring traders and growers to sell off stocks, old growers to plant more, and new areas (Colombia) to enter production. In addition, such repression usually only increases consumption.

    If drug seizures, for instance, raise the street price, then addicted consumers will maintain their habit by cutting other expenses (food, rent) or raising their income by dealing drugs to new users and so expanding the trade.

    Instead of reducing the traffic, the drug war has actually helped stimulate that 10-fold increase in global opium production and a parallel surge in U.S. heroin users from just 68,000 in 1970 to 886,000 in 2017.

    By attacking supply and failing to treat demand, the U.N.-U.S. drug war has been pursuing a “solution” to drugs that defies the immutable law of supply and demand.

    As a result, Washington’s drug war has, in the past 50 years, gone from defeat to debacle.

    The Domestic Influence of Illicit Drugs

    That drug war has, however, incredible staying power. It has persisted despite decades of failure because of an underlying partisan logic.

    In 1973, while President Richard Nixon was still fighting his drug war in Turkey and Thailand, New York’s Republican governor, Nelson Rockefeller, enacted the notorious “Rockefeller Drug Laws.” Those included mandatory penalties of 15 years to life for the possession of just four ounces of narcotics.

    As the police swept inner-city streets for low-level offenders, annual prison sentences in New York State for drug crimes surged from only 470 in 1970 to a peak of 8,500 in 1999, with African-Americans representing 90% of those incarcerated.

    By then, New York’s state prisons held a previously unimaginable 73,000 people. During the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan, a conservative Republican, dusted off Rockefeller’s anti-drug campaign for intensified domestic enforcement, calling for a “national crusade” against drugs and winning draconian federal penalties for personal drug use and small-scale dealing.

    For the previous 50 years, the U.S. prison population had remained remarkably stable at just 110 prisoners per 100,000 people.

    The new drug war, however, doubled those prisoners from 370,000 in 1981 to 713,000 in 1989.

    Driven by Reagan-era drug laws and parallel state legislation, prison inmates soared to 2.3 million by 2008, raising the country’s incarceration rate to an extraordinary 751 prisoners per 100,000 population.

    And 51% of those in federal penitentiaries were there for drug offenses.

    Such mass incarceration has led as well to significant disenfranchisement, starting a trend that would, by 2012, deny the vote to nearly six million people, including 8% of all African-American voting-age adults, a liberal constituency that had gone overwhelmingly Democratic for more than half a century.

    In addition, this carceral regime concentrated its prison populations, including guards and other prison workers, in conservative rural districts of the country, creating something akin to latter-day “rotten boroughs” for the Republican Party.

    Take, for example, New York’s 21st Congressional District, which covers the Adirondacks and the state’s heavily forested northern panhandle.

    It’s home to 14 state prisons, including some 16,000 inmates, 5,000 employees, and their 8,000 family members — making them collectively the district’s largest employer and a defining political presence.

    Add in the 13,000 or so troops in nearby Fort Drum and you have a reliably conservative bloc of 26,000 voters (and 16,000 non-voters), or the largest political force in a district where only 240,000 residents actually vote.

    Not surprisingly, the incumbent Republican congresswoman survived the 2018 blue wave to win handily with 56% of the vote. (So never say that the drug war had no effect.)

    So successful were Reagan Republicans in framing this partisan drug policy as a moral imperative that two of his liberal Democratic successors, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, avoided any serious reform of it. Instead of systemic change, Obama offered clemency to about 1,700 convicts, an insignificant handful among the hundreds of thousands still locked up for non-violent drug offenses.

    While partisan paralysis at the federal level has blocked change, the separate states, forced to bear the rising costs of incarceration, have slowly begun reducing prison populations.

    In a November 2018 ballot measure, for instance, Florida — where the 2000 presidential election was decided by just 537 ballots — voted to restore electoral rights to the state’s 1.4 million felons, including 400,000 African-Americans.

    No sooner did that plebiscite pass, however, than Florida’s Republican legislators desperately tried to claw back that defeat by requiring that the same felons pay fines and court costs before returning to the electoral rolls.

    Not only does the drug war influence U.S. politics in all sorts of negative ways but it has reshaped American society — and not for the better, either.

    The surprising role of illicit drug distribution in ordering life inside some of the country’s major cities has been illuminated in a careful study by a University of Chicago researcher who gained access to the financial records of a drug gang inside Chicago’s impoverished Southside housing projects.

    He found that, in 2005, the Black Gangster Disciple Nation, known as GD, had about 120 bosses who employed 5,300 young men, largely as street dealers, and had another 20,000 members aspiring to those very jobs.

    While the boss of each of the gang’s hundred crews earned about $100,000 annually, his three officers made just $7.00 an hour, his 50 street dealers only $3.30 an hour, and their hundreds of other members served as unpaid apprentices, vying for entry-level slots when street dealers were killed, a fate which one in four regularly suffered.

    So what does all this mean? In an impoverished inner city with very limited job opportunities, this drug gang provided high-mortality employment on a par with the minimum wage (then $5.15 a hour) that their peers in more affluent neighborhoods earned from much safer work at McDonald’s.

    Moreover, with some 25,000 members in Southside Chicago, GD was providing social order for young men in the volatile 16-to-30 age cohort — minimizing random violence, reducing petty crime, and helping Chicago maintain its gloss as a world-class business center.

    Until there is sufficient education and employment in the nation’s cities, the illicit drug market will continue to fill the void with work that carries a high cost in violence, addiction, imprisonment, and more generally blighted lives.

    The End of Drug Prohibition

    As the global prohibition effort enters its second century, we are witnessing two countervailing trends.

    The very idea of a prohibition regime has reached a crescendo of dead-end violence not just in Afghanistan but recently in Southeast Asia, demonstrating the failure of the drug war’s repression strategy.

    In 2003, Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra launched a campaign against methamphetamine abuse that prompted his police to carry out 2,275 extrajudicial killings in just three months.

    Carrying that coercive logic to its ultimate conclusion, on his first day as Philippine president in 2016, Rodrigo Duterte ordered an attack on drug trafficking that has since yielded 1.3 million surrenders by dealers and users, 86,000 arrests, and some 20,000 bodies dumped on city streets across the country. Yet drug use remains deeply rooted in the slums of both Bangkok and Manila.

    On the other side of history’s ledger, the harm-reduction movement led by medical practitioners and community activists worldwide is slowly working to unravel the global prohibition regime.

    With a 1996 ballot measure, California voters, for instance, started a trend by legalizing medical marijuana sales.

    By 2018, Oklahoma had become the 30th state to legalize medical cannabis. Following initiatives by Colorado and Washington in 2012, eight more states to date have decriminalized the recreational use of cannabis, long the most widespread of all illicit drugs.

    Hit by a surge of heroin abuse during the 1980s, Portugal’s government first reacted with repression that, as everywhere else on the planet, did little to stanch rising drug abuse, crime, and infection.

    Gradually, a network of medical professionals across the country adopted harm-reduction measures that would provide a striking record of proven success.

    After two decades of this ad hoc trial, in 2001 Portugal decriminalized the possession of all illegal drugs, replacing incarceration with counseling and producing a sustained drop in HIV and hepatitis infections.

    Projecting this experience into the future, it seems likely that harm-reduction measures will be adopted progressively at local and national levels around the globe, while various endless and unsuccessful wars on drugs are curtailed or abandoned.

    Perhaps someday a caucus of Republican legislators in some oak-paneled Washington conference room and a choir of U.N. bureaucrats in their glass-towered Vienna headquarters will remain the only apostles preaching the discredited gospel of drug prohibition.
    Decriminalizing the Drug War? Calculating the Damage from a Century of Drug Prohibition https://desultoryheroics.com/2019/05/06/decriminalizing-the-drug-war/ Posted By Luther Blissett By Alfred W. McCoy: TomDispatch 5/6/19 We live in a time of change, when people are questioning old assumptions and seeking new directions. In the ongoing debate over health care, social justice, and border security, there is, however, one overlooked issue that should be at the top of everyone’s agenda, from Democratic Socialists to libertarian Republicans: America’s longest war. No, not the one in Afghanistan. I mean the drug war. For more than a century, the U.S. has worked through the U.N. (and its predecessor, the League of Nations) to build a harsh global drug prohibition regime — grounded in draconian laws, enforced by pervasive policing, and punished with mass incarceration. For the past half-century, the U.S. has also waged its own “war on drugs” that has complicated its foreign policy, compromised its electoral democracy, and contributed to social inequality. Perhaps the time has finally come to assess the damage that drug war has caused and consider alternatives. Even though I first made my mark with a 1972 book that the CIA tried to suppress on the heroin trade in Southeast Asia, it’s taken me most of my life to grasp all the complex ways this country’s drug war, from Afghanistan to Colombia, the Mexican border to inner-city Chicago, has shaped American society. Last summer, a French director doing a documentary interviewed me for seven hours about the history of illicit narcotics. As we moved from the seventeenth century to the present and from Asia to America, I found myself trying to answer the same relentless question: What had 50 years of observation actually drilled into me, beyond some random facts, about the character of the illicit traffic in drugs? At the broadest level, the past half-century turns out to have taught me that drugs aren’t just drugs, drug dealers aren’t just “pushers,” and drug users aren’t just “junkies” (that is, outcasts of no consequence). Illicit drugs are major global commodities that continue to influence U.S. politics, both national and international. And our drug wars create profitable covert netherworlds in which those very drugs flourish and become even more profitable. Indeed, the U.N. once estimated that the transnational traffic, which supplied drugs to 4.2% of the world’s adult population, was a $400 billion industry, the equivalent of 8% of global trade. In ways that few seem to understand, illicit drugs have had a profound influence on modern America, shaping our international politics, national elections, and domestic social relations. Yet a feeling that illicit drugs belong to a marginalized demimonde has made U.S. drug policy the sole property of law enforcement and not health care, education, or urban development. During this process of reflection, I’ve returned to three conversations I had back in 1971 when I was a 26-year-old graduate student researching that first book of mine, The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. In the course of an 18-month odyssey around the globe, I met three men, deeply involved in the drug wars, whose words I was then too young to fully absorb. The first was Lucien Conein, a “legendary” CIA operative whose covert career ranged from parachuting into North Vietnam in 1945 to train communist guerrillas with Ho Chi Minh to organizing the CIA coup that killed South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963. In the course of our interview at his modest home near CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, he laid out just how the Agency’s operatives, like so many Corsican gangsters, practiced the “clandestine arts” of conducting complex operations beyond the bounds of civil society and how such “arts” were, in fact, the heart and soul of both covert operations and the drug trade. Second came Colonel Roger Trinquier, whose life in a French drug netherworld extended from commanding paratroopers in the opium-growing highlands of Vietnam during the First Indochina War of the early 1950s to serving as deputy to General Jacques Massu in his campaign of murder and torture in the Battle of Algiers in 1957. During an interview in his elegant Paris apartment, Trinquier explained how he helped fund his own paratroop operations through Indochina’s illicit opium traffic. Emerging from that interview, I felt almost overwhelmed by the aura of Nietzschean omnipotence that Trinquier had clearly gained from his many years in this shadowy realm of drugs and death. My last mentor on the subject of drugs was Tom Tripodi, a covert operative who had trained Cuban exiles in Florida for the CIA’s 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion and then, in the late 1970s, penetrated mafia networks in Sicily for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. In 1971, he appeared at my front door in New Haven, Connecticut, identified himself as a senior agent for the Treasury Department’s Bureau of Narcotics, and insisted that the Bureau was worried about my future book. Rather tentatively, I showed him just a few draft pages of my manuscript for The Politics of Heroin and he promptly offered to help me make it as accurate as possible. During later visits, I would hand him chapters and he would sit in a rocking chair, shirt sleeves rolled up, revolver in his shoulder holster, scribbling corrections and telling remarkable stories about the drug trade — like the time his Bureau found that French intelligence was protecting the Corsican syndicates smuggling heroin into New York City. Far more important, though, through him I grasped how ad hoc alliances between criminal traffickers and the CIA regularly helped both the Agency and the drug trade prosper. Looking back, I can now see how those veteran operatives were each describing to me a clandestine political domain, a covert netherworld in which government agents, military men, and drug traders were freed from the shackles of civil society and empowered to form secret armies, overthrow governments, and even, perhaps, kill a foreign president. At its core, this netherworld was then and remains today an invisible political realm inhabited by criminal actors and practitioners of Conein’s “clandestine arts.” Offering some sense of the scale of this social milieu, in 1997 the United Nations reported that transnational crime syndicates had 3.3 million members worldwide who trafficked in drugs, arms, humans, and endangered species. Meanwhile, during the Cold War, all the major powers — Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States — deployed expanded clandestine services worldwide, making covert operations a central facet of geopolitical power. The end of the Cold War has in no way changed this reality. For over a century now, states and empires have used their expanding powers for moral prohibition campaigns that have periodically transformed alcohol, gambling, tobacco, and, above all, drugs into an illicit commerce that generates sufficient cash to sustain covert netherworlds. Drugs and U.S. Foreign Policy The influence of illicit drugs on U.S. foreign policy was evident between 1979 and 2019 in the abysmal failure of its never-ending wars in Afghanistan. Over a period of 40 years, two U.S. interventions there fostered all the conditions for just such a covert netherworld. While mobilizing Islamic fundamentalists to fight the Soviet occupation of that country in the 1980s, the CIA tolerated opium trafficking by its Afghan mujahedeen allies, while arming them for a guerrilla war that would ravage the countryside, destroying conventional agriculture and herding. In the decade after superpower intervention ended in 1989, a devastating civil war and then Taliban rule only increased the country’s dependence upon drugs, raising opium production from 250 tons in 1979 to 4,600 tons by 1999. This 20-fold increase transformed Afghanistan from a diverse agricultural economy into a country with the world’s first opium monocrop — that is, a land thoroughly dependent on illicit drugs for exports, employment, and taxes. Demonstrating that dependence, in 2000 when the Taliban banned opium in a bid for diplomatic recognition and cut production to just 185 tons, the rural economy imploded and their regime collapsed as the first U.S. bombs fell in October 2001. To say the least, the U.S. invasion and occupation of 2001-2002 failed to effectively deal with the drug situation in the country. As a start, to capture the Taliban-controlled capital, Kabul, the CIA had mobilized Northern Alliance leaders who had long dominated the drug trade in northeast Afghanistan, as well as Pashtun warlords active as drug smugglers in the southeastern part of the country. In the process, they created a post-war politics ideal for the expansion of opium cultivation. Even though output surged in the first three years of the U.S. occupation, Washington remained uninterested, resisting anything that might weaken military operations against the Taliban guerrillas. Testifying to this policy’s failure, the U.N.’s Afghanistan Opium Survey 2007 reported that the harvest that year reached a record 8,200 tons, generating 53% of the country’s gross domestic product, while accounting for 93% of the world’s illicit narcotics supply. When a single commodity represents over half of a nation’s economy, everyone — officials, rebels, merchants, and traffickers — is directly or indirectly implicated. In 2016, the New York Times reported that both Taliban rebels and provincial officials opposing them were locked in a struggle for control of the lucrative drug traffic in Helmand Province, the source of nearly half the country’s opium. A year later, the harvest reached a record 9,000 tons, which, according to the U.S. command, provided 60% of the Taliban’s funding. Desperate to cut that funding, American commanders dispatched F-22 fighters and B-52 bombers to destroy the insurgency’s heroin laboratories in Helmand — doing inconsequential damage to a handful of crude labs and revealing the impotence of even the most powerful weaponry against the social power of the covert drug netherworld. With unchecked opium production sustaining Taliban resistance for the past 17 years and capable of doing so for another 17, the only U.S. exit strategy now seems to be restoring those rebels to power in a coalition government — a policy tantamount to conceding defeat in its longest military intervention and least successful drug war. High Priests of Prohibition For the past half-century, the ever-failing U.S. drug war has found a compliant handmaiden at the U.N., whose dubious role when it comes to drug policy stands in stark contrast to its positive work on issues like climate change and peace-keeping. In 1997, the director of U.N. drug control, Dr. Pino Arlacchi, proclaimed a 10-year program to eradicate all illicit opium and coca cultivation from the face of the planet, starting in Afghanistan. A decade later, his successor, Antonio Maria Costa, glossing over that failure, announced in the U.N.’s World Drug Report 2007 that “drug control is working and the world drug problem is being contained.” While U.N. leaders were making such grandiloquent promises about drug prohibition, the world’s illicit opium production was, in fact, rising 10-fold from just 1,200 tons in 1971, the year the U.S. drug war officially started, to a record 10,500 tons by 2017. This gap between triumphal rhetoric and dismal reality cries out for an explanation. That 10-fold increase in illicit opium supply is the result of a market dynamic I’ve termed “the stimulus of prohibition.” At the most basic level, prohibition is the necessary precondition for the global narcotics trade, creating both local drug lords and transnational syndicates that control this vast commerce. Prohibition, of course, guarantees the existence and well-being of such criminal syndicates which, to evade interdiction, constantly shift and build up their smuggling routes, hierarchies, and mechanisms, encouraging a worldwide proliferation of trafficking and consumption, while ensuring that the drug netherworld will only grow. In seeking to prohibit addictive drugs, U.S. and U.N. drug warriors act as if mobilizing for forceful repression could actually reduce drug trafficking, thanks to the imagined inelasticity of, or limits on, the global narcotics supply. In practice, however, when suppression reduces the opium supply from one area (Burma or Thailand), the global price just rises, spurring traders and growers to sell off stocks, old growers to plant more, and new areas (Colombia) to enter production. In addition, such repression usually only increases consumption. If drug seizures, for instance, raise the street price, then addicted consumers will maintain their habit by cutting other expenses (food, rent) or raising their income by dealing drugs to new users and so expanding the trade. Instead of reducing the traffic, the drug war has actually helped stimulate that 10-fold increase in global opium production and a parallel surge in U.S. heroin users from just 68,000 in 1970 to 886,000 in 2017. By attacking supply and failing to treat demand, the U.N.-U.S. drug war has been pursuing a “solution” to drugs that defies the immutable law of supply and demand. As a result, Washington’s drug war has, in the past 50 years, gone from defeat to debacle. The Domestic Influence of Illicit Drugs That drug war has, however, incredible staying power. It has persisted despite decades of failure because of an underlying partisan logic. In 1973, while President Richard Nixon was still fighting his drug war in Turkey and Thailand, New York’s Republican governor, Nelson Rockefeller, enacted the notorious “Rockefeller Drug Laws.” Those included mandatory penalties of 15 years to life for the possession of just four ounces of narcotics. As the police swept inner-city streets for low-level offenders, annual prison sentences in New York State for drug crimes surged from only 470 in 1970 to a peak of 8,500 in 1999, with African-Americans representing 90% of those incarcerated. By then, New York’s state prisons held a previously unimaginable 73,000 people. During the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan, a conservative Republican, dusted off Rockefeller’s anti-drug campaign for intensified domestic enforcement, calling for a “national crusade” against drugs and winning draconian federal penalties for personal drug use and small-scale dealing. For the previous 50 years, the U.S. prison population had remained remarkably stable at just 110 prisoners per 100,000 people. The new drug war, however, doubled those prisoners from 370,000 in 1981 to 713,000 in 1989. Driven by Reagan-era drug laws and parallel state legislation, prison inmates soared to 2.3 million by 2008, raising the country’s incarceration rate to an extraordinary 751 prisoners per 100,000 population. And 51% of those in federal penitentiaries were there for drug offenses. Such mass incarceration has led as well to significant disenfranchisement, starting a trend that would, by 2012, deny the vote to nearly six million people, including 8% of all African-American voting-age adults, a liberal constituency that had gone overwhelmingly Democratic for more than half a century. In addition, this carceral regime concentrated its prison populations, including guards and other prison workers, in conservative rural districts of the country, creating something akin to latter-day “rotten boroughs” for the Republican Party. Take, for example, New York’s 21st Congressional District, which covers the Adirondacks and the state’s heavily forested northern panhandle. It’s home to 14 state prisons, including some 16,000 inmates, 5,000 employees, and their 8,000 family members — making them collectively the district’s largest employer and a defining political presence. Add in the 13,000 or so troops in nearby Fort Drum and you have a reliably conservative bloc of 26,000 voters (and 16,000 non-voters), or the largest political force in a district where only 240,000 residents actually vote. Not surprisingly, the incumbent Republican congresswoman survived the 2018 blue wave to win handily with 56% of the vote. (So never say that the drug war had no effect.) So successful were Reagan Republicans in framing this partisan drug policy as a moral imperative that two of his liberal Democratic successors, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, avoided any serious reform of it. Instead of systemic change, Obama offered clemency to about 1,700 convicts, an insignificant handful among the hundreds of thousands still locked up for non-violent drug offenses. While partisan paralysis at the federal level has blocked change, the separate states, forced to bear the rising costs of incarceration, have slowly begun reducing prison populations. In a November 2018 ballot measure, for instance, Florida — where the 2000 presidential election was decided by just 537 ballots — voted to restore electoral rights to the state’s 1.4 million felons, including 400,000 African-Americans. No sooner did that plebiscite pass, however, than Florida’s Republican legislators desperately tried to claw back that defeat by requiring that the same felons pay fines and court costs before returning to the electoral rolls. Not only does the drug war influence U.S. politics in all sorts of negative ways but it has reshaped American society — and not for the better, either. The surprising role of illicit drug distribution in ordering life inside some of the country’s major cities has been illuminated in a careful study by a University of Chicago researcher who gained access to the financial records of a drug gang inside Chicago’s impoverished Southside housing projects. He found that, in 2005, the Black Gangster Disciple Nation, known as GD, had about 120 bosses who employed 5,300 young men, largely as street dealers, and had another 20,000 members aspiring to those very jobs. While the boss of each of the gang’s hundred crews earned about $100,000 annually, his three officers made just $7.00 an hour, his 50 street dealers only $3.30 an hour, and their hundreds of other members served as unpaid apprentices, vying for entry-level slots when street dealers were killed, a fate which one in four regularly suffered. So what does all this mean? In an impoverished inner city with very limited job opportunities, this drug gang provided high-mortality employment on a par with the minimum wage (then $5.15 a hour) that their peers in more affluent neighborhoods earned from much safer work at McDonald’s. Moreover, with some 25,000 members in Southside Chicago, GD was providing social order for young men in the volatile 16-to-30 age cohort — minimizing random violence, reducing petty crime, and helping Chicago maintain its gloss as a world-class business center. Until there is sufficient education and employment in the nation’s cities, the illicit drug market will continue to fill the void with work that carries a high cost in violence, addiction, imprisonment, and more generally blighted lives. The End of Drug Prohibition As the global prohibition effort enters its second century, we are witnessing two countervailing trends. The very idea of a prohibition regime has reached a crescendo of dead-end violence not just in Afghanistan but recently in Southeast Asia, demonstrating the failure of the drug war’s repression strategy. In 2003, Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra launched a campaign against methamphetamine abuse that prompted his police to carry out 2,275 extrajudicial killings in just three months. Carrying that coercive logic to its ultimate conclusion, on his first day as Philippine president in 2016, Rodrigo Duterte ordered an attack on drug trafficking that has since yielded 1.3 million surrenders by dealers and users, 86,000 arrests, and some 20,000 bodies dumped on city streets across the country. Yet drug use remains deeply rooted in the slums of both Bangkok and Manila. On the other side of history’s ledger, the harm-reduction movement led by medical practitioners and community activists worldwide is slowly working to unravel the global prohibition regime. With a 1996 ballot measure, California voters, for instance, started a trend by legalizing medical marijuana sales. By 2018, Oklahoma had become the 30th state to legalize medical cannabis. Following initiatives by Colorado and Washington in 2012, eight more states to date have decriminalized the recreational use of cannabis, long the most widespread of all illicit drugs. Hit by a surge of heroin abuse during the 1980s, Portugal’s government first reacted with repression that, as everywhere else on the planet, did little to stanch rising drug abuse, crime, and infection. Gradually, a network of medical professionals across the country adopted harm-reduction measures that would provide a striking record of proven success. After two decades of this ad hoc trial, in 2001 Portugal decriminalized the possession of all illegal drugs, replacing incarceration with counseling and producing a sustained drop in HIV and hepatitis infections. Projecting this experience into the future, it seems likely that harm-reduction measures will be adopted progressively at local and national levels around the globe, while various endless and unsuccessful wars on drugs are curtailed or abandoned. Perhaps someday a caucus of Republican legislators in some oak-paneled Washington conference room and a choir of U.N. bureaucrats in their glass-towered Vienna headquarters will remain the only apostles preaching the discredited gospel of drug prohibition.
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